Functions of Morality: Evolutionary Theory? (1 question) (7)
- Moral emotion, reasoning & behavior
- Humans have evolved so that either immoral or moral behavior can be in their genetic self interest depending on the context
- Ancestors better able to survive if they work together. Controlling bad behavior ensured they were not an outcast, and able to benefit from the group.
- Help relatives to keep the gene pool going.
- Help non-relatives because you get something in return
- Genetic makeup predisposes to behave antisocially but also to emphasize with fellow humans & to behave prosocially and morally
Empathy & prosocial behavior? (2 questions) (4)
- Supports Krebs in that empathy & prosocial behavior are a part of evolutionary heritage
- Infants can have empathy to other crying infants
- As children get older they have a truer form of empathy, are distressed by other kids crying, trying to give them toys to make them feel better
- Half of 13-18 months kids engage in prosocial behaviors
3 approaches to discipline that result in high moral behavior are?
1. LOVE WITHDRAWAL
2. POWER ASSERTION
What is LOVE WITHDRAWAL?
= withholding attention, affection when a child misbehaves "you were bad, I can't stand to look at you"
What is POWER ASSERTION? (2)
= using power/punishment when child misbehaves "go to your room"
- Power assertion → moral immaturity. Abused kids tend to feel less guilty. Limited power assertion is okay in a loving family
What is Induction? (2)
= explain to child why behavior is wrong, how it should be changed and how it effects other people. Focus on the consequences of misbehavior.
- Higher moral maturity is associated with Induction → because it leads to empathy
What is attachment? (2)
- It is a strong affectional tie that binds a person to an intimate companion
- A behavior system that humans regulate their emotional distress & achieve security by proximity to another person.
Nature, Nurture & Attachment (5)
- Bolby argued that all infant and parents are biologically predisposed to form attachments
- Imprinting (birds to mothers or another) = following around
- Infants don't necessarily imprint but they use other things to make sure their needs are filled (clinging, smiling, crying) & parent are biologically predisposed to respond to these signals
- Sensitive periods is first 3 years of life
- Attachment not same as bonding. Bonding is at birth. Don't need bonding to attach (ex. Adoptive parents & baby)
Oxytocin: The Love Hormone (1 question) (6)
- Oxytocin facilitates contractions, release of mild during breast feeding
- Hormone generates warm, calm, trusting feelings
- Released during intercourse, released by women when distressed by romantic relationships
- Mothers with high levels of oxytocin before birth engaged in high levels of positive attachment behavior after birth
- Decreased oxytocin receptors in brain → less sensitive in interactions
- Administer oxytocin → primes us to affiliate with others
Development of Early Emotions: Birth to 6months
- Birth to 6months = contentment → joy, interest → surprise, distress → sadness, disgust, anger, fear
- Once they have achieve self awareness then it's the self-conscious emotions of embarrassment, envy, empathy → embarrassment, pride shame, guilt (because they know what is suppose to happen)
Development of Early Emotions: 9 months
= social referencing = they react the way their parent does. If parent smiles at stranger then infant will smile
What is Emotion regulation?
= initiating, maintaining and altering emotional response. Infants can do this and they get better as time goes on. Emotion regulation is influenced by the infant's temperament and the caregiver's behavior
What are the four phases in forming attachments?
1. Undiscriminating social responsiveness
2. Discriminating social responsiveness
3. Active proximity or true attachment
4. Goal oriented partnership
Phase in forming attachments: Undiscriminating social responsiveness?
= (birth to 2-3 months) attach to voices, faces & other social stimuli. Don't yet show clear preference for anyone
Phase in forming attachments: Discriminating social responsiveness
= (2-3 months to 6-7 months) start to show preference for someone
Phase in forming attachments: Active proximity or true attachment
= (6-7 months to 3 years) first true attachment (usually mothers) will follow them around. Then they begin to form other attachments
Phase in forming attachments: Goal oriented partnership
= (3 years and older) taking parents goal into consideration & adjusting their behavior accordingly. Ex. Dad leaves the house, no longer throws a fit because he knows Dad will return. Child adjusts their needs of their Dad
What is separation anxiety? (3)
- Once attached to parent becomes fretful, wary when parent is gone.
- Appears when forming genuine attachments
- 14-18 months at its height and gradually becomes less frequent and intense
What is stranger anxiety? (2)
- Fearful of unfamiliar people.
- 8-10 months to one year and lessens over second year
Ways to combat stranger anxiety (5)
- Have mother hold the child to reduce fear
- Infant's companion react positively to stranger
- Make setting more familiar = sitter comes to child's house
- Be a sensitive, unobtrusive stranger = approve slowly, smiling
- Try not to look any stranger than necessary = don't dress weird
What are the 6 categories of play?
1. Unoccupied play = look around, idle, apparently aimless activity, such as pacing
2. Solitary play = play by themselves, with object & appear highly involved
3. Onlooker play = watch others play, make talk to player but they do not directly participate
4. Parallel play = kids play next to each other, doing the same thing, but with little interaction
5. Associative play = kids interact with sharing material but don't have the same goal. Ex. Share crayons but each are doing a different picture
6. Cooperative play = join forces to achieve a goal
What is Onlooker play?
= watch others play, make talk to player but they do not directly participate
What is Parallel play?
= kids play next to each other, doing the same thing, but with little interaction
What is Associative play?
= kids interact with sharing material but don't have the same goal. Ex. Share crayons but each are doing a different picture
What is good play? (3)
- Fosters cognitive, motor and social skills, cope with emotional problems
- Physical play → neural maturation, bone density
- Contributes to the development of children
The five stage in social/peer networks in kids
1. Late childhood = form same sex cliques
2. Boy and girls cliques start to interact. It's easier to talk to a boy if you are with a bunch of girls
3. Popular boys and girls form their own cliques
4. The other kids start forming their cliques
5. Late high school these cliques start to go away because they have served their purpose, which is meeting members of the opposite sex
Dating (1 question) (4)
- Takes place in largely in peer groups
- Early adolescence dating is more superficial
- Dating too young may be harmful
- Dating during adolescence better than not dating
What is Initiation phase of dating?
= early adolescence, figuring out self, realizing you are capable of relating to opposite sex
What is Status phase of dating?
= mid-adolescence. Matters who you have a relationship with "right person"
What is Affection phase of dating?
= late adolescence. Moved from self-concept or peers and moved to a more meaningful relationship. Takes place within a mixed small group, versus large group. Get advice from friends
Mother-Infant and Father-Infant Relationships (1 question) (5)
- Fathers just as capable, sensitive and child can attach to father
- Mothers spend more time with the children
- Mother spend time with caregiving, fathers with play time
- Both nature and nurture play a roll in the differences
- Fathers offer financial support, involved fathers = higher achieving kids, challenge them physically
Sibling relationships (2 questions) (5)
- Second child comes along and threatening the first born, who may develop problems
- First born will respond better if: good relationship with both parents, father becomes more involved, explain why new child needs care, assist with newborn care
- Siblings genetically inclined to help each other
- Fight for parent attention
- Can accept fair differences in treatment, but not unfair treatment
New Parenthood (1 question) (5)
- Can be good and bad for relationship
- Stressful change that is both positive & negative
- New roles, less time for yourself, financial strains
- If couple didn't have traditional gender roles before child they have more traditional roles now
- Good parents = prepared, mentally fit, good attachment as kids themselves, easy baby, good communication & problem solving skills, good social support (especially from partner)
The Empty nest (1 question) (4)
- Some have problems
- Overall a positive thing, due to fewer roles & responsibilities resulting in less strain and stress
- Focus on marriage, have more money
- Feel like they have done a good raising healthy, well adjusted children
Caring for aging parents (2 questions) (4)
- Middle generation squeeze (sandwich) = caring for younger & older generations
- -Daughters providers of emotional support, due to traditional gender roles and their jobs giving them availability
- May experience caregiver burden
- Hardest on daughters who feel duty vs. desire to help, single with no support, parents who have dementia
Divorcing families (1 question) (3)
- Before divorce = most common in younger people with children, short courtship, kids before marriage, low socioeconomic status
- After divorce = difficult for both husband & wife, wife has kids, wife has less money, leads to depression, physical ailments
- Hard on children. Mother tends to be more strict (but doesn't follow through) and less sympathetic, father more permissive → behavior problems, strained relationships with peers, poor academics
Who are four Common Abusers?
1. Commonly abused as a child. This is known as intergenerational transmission of parenting = passing down parenting styles, abuse.
2. Abused by spouse/partner and may have witnessed abuse as a child. Think of violence as the answer
3. Insecure individuals with low self-esteem
4. Have unrealistic expectations of children and what they can do at certain ages and as infants
The Abused (2)
- Often one child is singled out (ex. Sick or difficult children). Parent's uneasiness with these kids makes the kids even less responsive causing a vicious cycle.
The context of abuse (4)
- Parent is under stress and doesn't have support
- Life changes, such as losing a job
- Living in poor neighborhoods, no support
- Larger macro-environment. If violence and physical punishment is common happens more often
Effects of family violence (3)
- Cognitive, physical injuries, impaired brain development, social, mental, psychological disorders, behavioral problems, aggressiveness (may overreact to peers), intellectual deficiencies, lack of empathy towards others and may actually become abusive towards them.
- Some kids may be genetically geared towards abuse having little effect on them in the future.
- It will help kids if they have at least one non-abusive adult relationship
Programmed theories of aging (4)
= systemic genetic control of aging
- Each species has a max life span so it begs the theory that genes play a role
- Genes & environmental factors play a role
- Cells that no longer divide will shorten life. Good for limiting cancer, not good for longer life
What is Damage theories of aging? (4)
= problems with cells accumulate and deteriorating organs
- Wear and tear over time cause death
- Random damage not genetic influence
- Free radicals (from metabolism) damage cells and DNA and then DNA reproduces these altered cells. Ex, liver spots, dementia, cardiac issues
Who copes and who succumbs? (2 questions) (8)
- Having a secure attachment style helps with coping
- Resistant style of attachment → overly dependent and extreme and chronic grief
- Avoidant-dismissive attachment → difficulty expressing emotion, seeking comfort, may do little grieving
- Disorganized attachment → especially unequipped to cope with loss, may harm themselves, turn to drugs/alcohol
- Personal coping styles = low self-esteem → harder to cope. Positive coping style → easier coping
- Closeness of relationship affects coping = close spouses, children dying first
- Strong support system
- Other stressors increase difficulty = financial difficulties, handle things spouse usually did, small kids, have to move