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common core: RI 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, 4.5, 4.7, 4.10; RF 4.4 a & b; SL 4.1; L 4.6

academic vocabulary

specialized words used by people who study a certain subject or work in a particular field


a reason that something happens


a graphic organizer that uses columns and rows to organize information; a title and headings tell what the chart is about and what type of information it includes

chronological order

the order in which things happen


to show the similarities between two ideas, people, places, events, or passages

context clues

words in a text near an unknown word that give clues about the meaning of the unknown word


to show the differences between two objects, ideas, people, places, or events


a drawing with labels that shows the different parts of an object or how something works

domain-specific vocabulary

words that have a specific meaning in a particular kind of work or field of study, such as science, history, or technology

make inferences

to use information in the text and your own knowledge to figure out things that aren't stated directly by the author

main idea

the most important idea in a story or article


a picture that shows features, such as rivers, mountains, or streets, in an area; labels and a key tell about the information shown on the map

problem and solution

a text organization in which the information describes problem and then discusses a solution or solutions

technical texts

informative texts that explain events, procedures, ideas, or concepts; these texts explain what happens, why something happens, or how something works

time line

a graphic that shows the dates when important things happened in a certain time period

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