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21 terms

DNA - structure

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DNA
An organic macromolecule that stores information about how to make proteins.
Nucleic Acid
An organic macromolecule that stores genetic information
Nucleotide
The building block that makes up nucleic acids like DNA
Adenine
The base that pairs with Thymine in DNA
Thymine
The base that pairs with Adenine in DNA
Guanine
The base that pairs with Cytosine in DNA
Cytosine
The base that pairs with Guanine in DNA
Uracil
The base that pairs with Adenine in RNA
Uracil
The base that replaces Thymine in RNA
Antiparallel
Having two strands that run parallel to each other, but one is upside down.
Chromosome
A large molecule (chunk) of DNA
Gene
A specific section of DNA that codes for a specific polypeptide
Chromatid
One copy of a chromosome, after DNA replication (one arm of the 'X' shape)
Homologous
An adjective that describes two chromosomes that have the exact same genes, but one comes from mom and one comes from dad
Complementary
An adjective used to describe two bases that always pair up together (e.g. A and T, C and G)
Base
A molecule that makes up the "rungs" of DNA's ladder: A, T, C or G
Chromatin
DNA and histones, in their uncondensed forms (thread-like)
Histones
The proteins in a cell that DNA winds around
Double Helix
A shape like a twisted ladder
DNA
Deoxyribonucleic Acid
Centromere
The point where two sister chromatids are attached