69 terms

Humanities CLEP (visual arts & architecture)

REA's College Level Exam Program (CLEP) This is the visual arts and architecture portion ONLY.
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Classical Period
9th century B.C. and earlier.
Archaic Period
9th-8th centuries B.C. Greek art: vase paintings, geometric styles. zigzag, meandering and triangular designs; lively animal and human silhouettes by 6th C.
Helenistic Period
4th C. more genre subjects, and Romans built temples, roads, bath complexes, civic buildings, palaces, and aquaducts.
Byzantine style
about mid 6th C. (domes & arches) Meant to convey a supernatural, otherworldly efect. Hagia Sophia by Isidorus and Athemius.
Dark Ages
5th-8th C. Celtic Ireland, Scotland and northern Brittain: stone carvings and crosses.
Romanesque style
1st Century. art and architecture (shown in picture) was dominant in the western world in the eleventh and twelfth centuries and was characterized by a renewed interest in Roman construction forms, such as round arches, barrel vaults, and groin and supporting vaults. (picture snow white's castle with the well out front)
Gothic
12th-15th C. A French and Northern European style; very verticcal. Flying butttresss, pointed arches and vaults, decorated profusely with sculptures and stained glass.
Proto-Renaissance
13th &14th C. A classical style, humanism, naturalism. More festive, colorful and realistic. (this style is painting only)
Renaissance
1250 to 17th Century. Emphasis on wall decoration in fresco and painting of alterpieces. captures the moment before movement
Greco-Roman
15th C. scientific, ordered approach; perspective.
neoclassicism
18th & 19th C. Palladian/classical "revival" in architecture. Picture the White House.
Rococo
18th C. Decorative wall and ceiling schemes; turned the agitated drama of to light, pastel-toned, swirling compositions. Idylic. architecture: shells, scrolls, &leaves with stucco.
Baroque
17th through early 18th C. Great drama, rich, deep colors, & intense light & dark shadows. shows movement at its most dramatic point. Group portraits. Architecture: domes, roman pillars & rounded arches.
Neoclassicism
17th-19th C. Palladian/Classical style- Baroque energy, classical elements, and a touch of gothic.
Victorian
19th C. "Gothic Revival" or "Neo-Gothic"
Painting- everyday life & landscapes.
Impressionism
19th C. Emphasized quickly observed and sketched landscapes & everyday life. (blotchy appearance)
Postimpressionism
19th C. flat images inspired by Japanese Prints, emphasizing geometric forms, to distort form for expressive effect, and to use unnatural or arbitrary colour. less blotchy.
pointillism
19th C. Allows the viewer to visually mix the colors of a painting that had been applied in minute individual dots.
Cubism
20th C. was the most revolutionary and far-reaching art movement fo the centrury. (nonsensical geometric shapes.)
kinetic art
20th C. moves or has illusion of movement.
Op art
20th C. Manipulation of abstract color and repetative patterns to play tricks on the eyes.
fauvism
20th C. like impressionism but with unreal use of color -french for "the wild beasts".
Art Noveau
19th C. the decorative details of interior design.
postmodernism
20th C. modernism, with humanistically decorative elements.
pop art
20th C. early comic book style.
photomosaic
20th C. a picture made up of pictures.
Mannerists
16th C. Exagerations: floating angels, the confusion of illusion and reality,contorted and elogated figures, awkward spatial relationships, and strange lighting effects.
Nabis
19th C. distorted reality and pursued sinewy forms or abstract patterning.
die burke
20th C. meant to shock: contorted figures, screaming color, and outrageous themes.
Dada artists
20th C. assembled any materials available. "found objects"
greater naturalism
a wider variety fo poses and emotional display, and the intricate play of drapery.
tempera paintings
led to natrualistic representation of human figures.
terracotta
clay used in the construction of ancient buildings, figurines, and pottery.
sfumato
a smoky-shodowy way of modeling form
Neoplatonic philosophy
the body expresses the spirit. (Renaissance)
panels
pre-easels.
Trompe L'oeil
Roman technique to fool the eye into thinking a picture is 3D.
Tempietto
1st Renaissance building created in immatation of a Roman temple & in vaulted by a dome and encircled by classical columns. (Andrea Palladio)
Villa Rotunda
a perfect unity of geometric forms; 4 temple fronts each pointing n, w, s, e, and surround and inner cube of rooms.
Valutes
circular, spiral scroll-like motifs. (Ionic Order at the top of each column.)
doric column
no base, and topped by a smooth capital that flared from the column to meet a square abacus
Ionic column
valute design, & stands on a base which separates the shaft of the column from the stylobate, or platform.
Corinthian column
elaborate capitals decorated with leaves and scrolls.
abacus
a plain square block connecting the top of a doric column to the beam it supports.
stylobate
platform for a column.
pediments
triangular space just below the roof
relief sculpture
narrative action
friezes/metopes
decorative depictions on the beam above the columns.
trumeau
Central vertical supporting pillar of a doorway. (imitation of human or animal forms)
Lintel
horrizontal beam that rests on the jambs.
jambs
frames of a doorway.
atlantes
supports in post & lintel architecture of male figures.
caryatids
supports in post & lintel architecture of female figures.
squinches
block-like members laid accross the corners of a strucural unit to provide support for a dome.
corbelled arches
blocks stacked brick-wise to form a pointed arch.
catacombs
underground burial chambers outside Rome.
St. Chapelle
classical gothic cathedral located in Paris, France, is a stunning example of the Gothic use of stained glass windows to bring in light from heaven.
frescos
is a type of painting in which the artist paints in pigments mixed with water on wet or dry plaster.
Medici
family of Florence (13th-17th centuries) was wealthy, powerful banking family who patronized many of the well-known works of Renaissance art.
Giotto
was an early Florentine Renaissance painter and architect known for his dramatic, realistic frescos that depict of deep human expressions and emotions
Brunelleschi
(1377-1446) was a Florentine Renaissance architect who invented single vanishing point perspective and designed the brilliant, great, new dome for the Cathedral of Florence
Donatello
(1386-1466) was a famous Florentine early Renaissance sculptor and artist who created the well-known bronze statue David (shown above top left), the bronze equestrian statue Gattamelata (shown above bottom left), and the marble statue St. George (shown above right), all of which depict naturalism and realistic human feelings and emotions.
Botticelli
(1445-1510) was an Italian painter of the early Renaissance who painted figures whose feet did not touch the ground.
Pieter Brugel
(c. 1525-1569) is known for his portrayal of peasants and scenes from their everyday life.
Bernini
a famous and innovative Italian sculptor of the Baroque period whose sculptures, such as David, Apollo and Daphne, St. Peter's Chair, and Ecstasy of St. Theresa are full of dynamic movement and emotion.
Rembrandt
(1601-1669) one of the best painters and printmakers of all time, lived during the Baroque period and is remembered for his dramatic use of light, single, group, and self-portraits and works such as The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Tulp, The Night Watch, The Descent from the Cross, and Abraham and Isaac.
Chiaroscuro
a bold contrast between light and dark.
Jan Vermeer
Dutch Baroque artist (1632-1675) who painted this painting Milkmaid is best known for his depiction of scenes from middle-class society that show life at home and the nobility of work.
Christopher Wren
(1632-1723) oversaw the rebuilding of St. Paul's Cathedral (shown in pictures) in London after the church burned down during the Great Fire of 1666.