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Momentum and Impulse
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Gravity
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If you throw a ball horizontally while standing on roller skates, you roll backwards. Will you roll backwards if you go through the motions of throwing the ball, but hold on to it instead? Explain your reasoning?
No
your arm's movement causes a force that pushes you to move in the opposite direction that you fake threw the ball but then you stop this motion by not actually releasing it.
You counteracted your own force by changing the balls momentum. Your momentum would continually rock back and forth to the point that you would gain 0 displacement and a change in momentum equal to 0.
Since the impulse momentum theorem is Fnet*change in time=change in momentum, having a change in momentum of 0 would cause a net force of 0.
Which has the greater change in momentum, a 50 g clay ball that strikes a wall at 1 m/s and sticks or a 50 g superball that strikes a wall at 1 m/s and bounces away from the wall at 0.8 m/s? Explain your reasoning.
They have the same initial momentum due to the fact that they have the same velocity and mass during their fall.
After the bounce, since the velocities change, the momentums now differ.
The first fall (which sticks) has the greater change in momentum, as the momentum goes from 50 kg m/s to 0 kg m/s
the second ball goes from 50 kg m/s to 40 kg m/s
This is similar to the ball scenario in the video. Momentum is equal to mass times velocity.
A hummer and a VW Beetle travelling at equal speeds have head-on collision.
Which vehicle will experience the greatest force of impact? Justify your answer.
Due to Newton's Third Law, they will have equal and opposite forces exerted onto each other.
A hummer and a VW Beetle travelling at equal speeds have head-on collision.
Which vehicle will experience the greatest change in momentum? Justify your answer.
The Beetle would have the greatest change in momentum because this car has a lesser mass, causing it to travel at a faster velocity after the collision.
Velocity times force is equal to momentum
since they both had the same initial velocity and the same force exerted, the momentum would change the greatest for the Beetle.
A hummer and a VW Beetle travelling at equal speeds have head-on collision.
Which vehicle will experience the greatest acceleration? Justify your answer.
The car with the lesser mass will have the greatest acceleration due to the fact that both cars have the same net force
the equation for acceleration is a=Fnet/m.
A greater mass would form a smaller number according to this, giving it a lesser acceleration.
Why are padded dashboards safer than hard dashboards in automobiles?
Padded absorb more force and take longer to crumble when they get smashed.
This longer amount of time slows momentum to a less lethal state
This can be seen in the equation Fnet*change in time=change in momentum
A larger amount of time will cause change in momentum divided by change in time to be a lesser number when solving for net Force.
When starting a heavy train, why will train engineers sometimes back up, stop, and then proceed forward? (This technique is called "bunching slack".)
They want to gain momentum
using force from previous start-up in its next back in forth motion to increase velocity, which increases momentum.
Two objects, A and B have identical velocities. Object A has 3 times the mass of object B.
Find the value of the ratio of momentum A to momentum B. Justify you answer
A=3B, making the ratio 1:3.
This is because momentum is equal to mass times velocity.
If you multiply the mass by three, then the entire momentum triples.
Two objects, A and B have identical velocities. Object A has 3 times the mass of object B.
Find the value of the ratio of kinetic energy A to kinetic energy B.Justify your answer
Since KE= .5(m)(v^2), the kinetic energies would still have the ratio of 1:3, since mass is multiplied in the equation.
Two objects, C and D, have identical masses. Object C has twice the velocity of object D.
Find the value of the ratio of the momentum C to momentum D. Justify your answer.
C=2D.
since the equation for momentum is p=mv, multiplying the velocity by 2 would double the momentum.
C will have twice the momentum of D
a ratio of 2:1.
Two objects, C and D, have identical masses. Object C has twice the velocity of object D.
Find the value of the ratio of kinetic energy C to kinetic energy D. Justify your answer.
The ratio for this would be different since velocity is squared in the Kinetic Energy equation.
C would be four times greater than D. 4:1 is the ratio.
While being thrown, a net force of 132 N acts on a baseball (mass = 140 grams) for a period of
4.5 × 10^−2 seconds.
What is the magnitude of the change in momentum of the ball?
5.9 kg m/s
If the initial speed of the baseball is
v=0.0 m/s , what will its speed be when it leaves the pitcher's hand?
42 m/s
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