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a. Human Hormones (needs curation)
Major human hormones, glands producing them, effects in tissue, structure.
Terms in this set (32)
polypeptide hormone, produced in pituitary gland, acts as a neuromodulator. believed to be involved in behaviors such as orgasm, social recognition, pair bonding, anxiety, maternal behaviors, cuddling, etc
vasopressin (anti-diuretic hormone ADH)
extremely similar to oxytocin in structure peptide hormone, and is synthesized in the hypothalamus. released in response to increased osmolarity of the blood or decreased blood volume, low blood pressure, or sometimes by pain. targets kidneys to increase resorption of water
somatotropin (growth hormone GH)
peptide hormone produced in the anterior pituitary gland. Released in response to GHRH, targets muscle, bone, cartilage, and various other tissues, acts as an anabolic hormone, stimulating growth and the metabolism of fats
Describe thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
TSH is a glycoprotein, and is synthesized by thyrotroph cells in the anterior pituitary. Its release is mediated by TSH releasing hormone (TRH). It can also be mediated by cold temperature in infants. It is inhibited by feedback inhibition and by GHIH. Its effects target the thyroid gland, where it stimulated the thyroid to release thyroid hormones T4 and T3.
Describe adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
ACTH is a peptide hormone consisting of 39 amino acids that is synthesized by corticotroph cells in the anterior pituitary. Its release is mediated by CRH, which is in turn stimulated by fever, hypoglycemia, and other stress factors. It is inhibited by feedback inhibition. Its effects target the adrenal cortex, where it stimulates the release of glucocorticoids and androgens, and to a small extent mineralocorticoids.
Describe follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
FSH is a glycoprotein hormone which is synthesized by gonadotroph cells in the anterior pituitary. Its release is stimulated by gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), and is inhibited by feedback inhibition, estrogen in females, and testosterone in males. Its target organs are the ovaries and testes, where it stimulates the ovarian follicle maturation and estrogen production, and sperm production.
Describe luteinizing hormone (LH)
LH is a glycoprotein hormone which is synthesized by gonadotroph cells in the anterior pituitary. Its release is mediated by GnRH. It is inhibited by feedback inhibition by estrogen and progesterone in females and testosterone in males. It targets the ovaries and testes, triggering ovulation and the production of estrogen and progesterone, and stimulating testosterone production in males.
Describe prolactin (PRL)
Prolactin is a protein hormone which is synthesized by the lactotroph cells in the anterior pituitary. Its release is mediated by an inhibitory mechanism, where PIH levels decrease. Its release is also enhanced by estrogens, birth control pills, breast feeding, and dopamine blocking drugs. It is inhibited by PIH (dopamine). Its target is the secretory tissue of the breast, where it promotes lactation.
Describe thyroid hormone (T4 and T3)
T4 (thyroxine) and T3 (triiodothyronine) are the two hormones formed by the thyroid follicle cells. Mostly, T4 is formed in the thyroid, while the majority of T3 is formed at the target tissue. Its release is mediated by TSH from the anterior pituitary. T4 and T3 have effects on many target systems. They increase basal metabolic rate and heat production. They also promote glucose catabolism, the mobilization of fat, and the synthesis of cholesterol. It also affects many other target tissues, where it promotes normal development and function.
Calcitonin is a polypeptide hormone synthesized by the parafollicular cells (C cells) of the thyroid. Its release is mediated by high blood Ca++ levels. Its effects are to antagonize parathyroid hormone, and lower blood Ca++ levels. It does this by targeting the skeleton, inhibiting osteoclast activity, and stimulating Ca++ uptake and incorporation into the bone matrix.
Describe parathyroid hormone (PTH)
PTH is synthesized by the parathyroid glands, by chief cells. PTH release is mediated by low blood Ca++ levels. Its effect is to raise blood Ca++ levels in three ways. The first is that is stimulates osteoclasts to digest bony matrix and release Ca++. The second is that is enhances reabsorption of Ca++ by the kidneys. The third is that it promotes activation of vitamin D, increasing uptake of Ca++.
Mineralocorticoids are hormones, primarily aldosterone, which are synthesized by cells in the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex. Their release is mediated by decreasing blood volume or pressure, elevated K+ levels, and ACTH. They target the kidneys and cause an increase in blood levels of Na+, decrease K+, causing a rise in blood pressure and tension.
Glucocorticoids are hormones, primarily cortisol, which are produced by cells in the zona fasciculata and zona reticularis of the adrenal cortex. Their release is mediated by ACTH, and is inhibited by feedback inhibition of cortisol. Their effects are to promote gluconeogenesis and hyperglycemia, to mobilize fats, stimulate protein catabolism, resist stress, and decrease inflammatory processes.
Gonadocorticoids, primarily androgens, are converted to testosterone or estrogens after their release. Their release is stimulated by ACTH. Their method of inhibition is not understood, but it is not a feedback inhibition mechanism. It has insignificant effect in males, but is responsible for female libido.
Catecholamines, mainly epinephrine and norepinephrine, are hormones produced by the adrenal medulla. Their release is stimulated by neurons of the sympathetic nervous system. Their effects are to increase heart rate and metabolic rate, and increase blood pressure by vasoconstriction.
Insulin is a hormone produced by the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. Its release is mediated by rising levels of blood glucose, and its effect is to stimulate the use of glucose for ATP production, the synthesis of glycogen, and conversion of glucose to fat.
Glucagon is a hormone produced by the alpha cells of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. Its release is stimulated by lowering blood glucose levels. Its effects are to cause the breakdown of glycogen to glucose, gluconeogenesis, and the release of glucose from the liver.
Leptin is a peptide hormone produced by certain adipose tissues. Its release is caused by increases in nutrient uptake and is proportional to fat stores. It targets the brain to suppress appetite and increase energy expenditure.
Describe resistin and adiponectin
Resistin and adiponectin are peptide hormones produced by certain adipose tissues. Their release triggers are unknown, but their effects are antagonistic in fat, muscle and liver. Resistin antagonizes insulin's action while adiponectin enhances it.
Gastrin is a peptide hormone produced by the stomach. It is secreted in response to food consumption, and its effect is to stimulate glands to release hydrochloric acid.
Describe intestinal gastrin
Intestinal gastrin is identical to gastrin but is produced by the duodenum of the small intestine in response to food, especially fatty food.
Secretin is a peptide hormone produced by the duodenum. It is secreted in response to food, and targets the pancreas and liver to release bicarbonate rich juices.
Describe cholecystokinin (CCK)
Cholecystokinin is a peptide hormone produced by the duodenum in response to food. It stimulates the pancreas to release enzyme rich juices, the gallbladder to release bile, and the hepatopancreatic sphincter to relax and allow the bile and enzymes to enter the duodenum.
Incretin is a peptide hormone produced by the duodenum and other gut regions. It is secreted in response to glucose in the intestinal lumen. It stimulates the pancreas to increase insulin release and decrease glucagon release.
Describe atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)
ANP is a peptide hormone secreted by the atria of the heart in response to the stretching of the atria due to rising blood pressure. It stimulates the kidney to inhibit sodium ion reabsorption and inhibit renin release. It also inhibits secretion of aldosterone from the adrenal cortex. This lowers blood pressure
Describe erythropoietin (EPO)
EPO is a glycoprotein hormone produced by the kidney and secreted in response to hypoxia. It stimulates the red bone marrow to increase production of red blood cells.
Renin is a peptide hormone secreted from the kidneys in response to low blood pressure or plasma volume. It acts as an enzyme activating the renin-angiotensin mechanism of aldosterone release, causing blood pressure to rise.
Osteocalcin is a peptide hormone synthesized by the skeleton. Its release trigger is unknown, but it acts to increase insulin production and sensitivity.
Describe cholecalciferol (provitamin d3)
This is a steroid hormone which is activated by the kidneys to active vitamin D3 (calcitriol), in response to parathyroid hormone. Requires UV exposure in skin. It stimulates active transport of calcium ions across the intestinal walls.
Describe thymulin, thymopoietins, and thymosins.
These are peptide hormones synthesized by the thymus. Their release trigger is unknown. They are involved in paracrine T lymphocyte development and immune responses.