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Am. Lit. 1: Precolonial and Early Native American (1500-1607): Historical context and Literary elements

- no authentic record
- songs, myths, legends
- European exploration
- folklore: beauty and awe of nature
- myth: stories passed down, cultural and religious rituals.

Am. Lit 1: Colonial Literature (1607-1763): Historical context and literary elements

- Puritan settlers breaking from English church
- Salem witch trials- Cotton Mather
- literature dominated by religion and politics
- Plain rhetoric, logic, clarity
- Allegories- spiritual significance
- Puritan diaries, passed down
- Determinism and righteousness

Colonial Works and Writers: William Bradford

- best source for info about Pilgrims
- "History of Plymouth Plantation"
- "The Mayflower Compact"

Colonial Works and Writers: Anne Bradstreet

- The Tenth Muse
- Lately Sprung Up in America
- philosophical subjects
- influenced by Elizabethan poets
- colonial New England life

Colonial Works and Writers: William Byrd

- A History of the Dividing Line
- journey into Carolinian swamps
- Cavalier poet

Colonial Works and Writers: Jonathan Edwards

- Personal Narrative
- believed in God's infinite power
- against liberalism in Church
- sermon, "Sinners in Hands of an Angry God"

Colonial Works and Writers: Richard Mather

- leader of Separatist church in Mass
- Bay Psalm Book

Colonial Works and Writers: Samuel Sewall

- one of the first colonists to write pamphlets against slavery and mistreatment of Indians

Colonial Works and Writers: John Smith

- his story characterizes the inevitability of white triumph over Indian opposition
- Description of New England

Colonial Works and Writers: John Winthrop

- governor of Mass colony
- A Model of Christian Charity

Am Lit. 1: Revolutionary Literature (1764-1789): Historical context and Literary elements

- Declaration of Independence and Constitution
- Benjamin Franklin: peculiar genius of America
- Franklin's "Dogood Papers", "Autobiography"
- secular, reason primary guide
- American myth/story: rags to riches
- Nationalist poetry

Revolutionary Works and Writers: John and Abigail Adams

- Letters document the Revolution

Revolutionary Works and Writers: Benjamin Franklin

- Poor Richard's Almanack: weather predictions, brief sayings of virtue

Revolutionary Works and Writers: Alexander Hamilton

- 85 essays: "The Federalist" in order to secure ratification of Constitution

Revolutionary Works and Writers: Patrick Henry

- a great orator
- "Give me liberty or give me death."

Revolutionary Works and Writers: Thomas Jefferson

- Declaration of Independence

Revolutionary Works and Writers: Thomas Paine

- Common Sense
- political independence

Revolutionary Works and Writers: Gustavus Vassa

- leading figure in the 18th century abolition movement

Revolutionary Works and Writers: George Washington

- Farewell to the Army of the Potomac
- traditions of strong central government, isolation from European politics, two-term limits for presidents

Revolutionary Works and Writers: Phillis Wheatley

- African-born black woman captured and sold as a slave to Boston merchant, John Wheatley, who taught her to read and write and encouraged her poetry.
- Over 1/3 of her poems consist of elegies, the remainder being on religious, classical, and abstract themes.
- three primary elements of her poetry: Christianity, classicism, and hierophantic solar worship.
- wrote "Poems on Various Subjects"

Am. Lit. 1: Romantic Literature (1790-1865): Historical Context

- America begins expanding westward (Manifest Destiny)
- War of 1812: "Star Spangled Banner" by Francis Scott Key
- Henry Clay: Missouri Compromise, abolition
- John C. Calhoun: supporter of slavery, states rights
- Daniel Webster: nationalist, opposed Calhoun

Romantic Literature: Literary Elements

- emergence of early American folktales
- southern writers: propaganda in defense of slavery, romance fictions, chivalric melodramas
- Plantation novels portray slavery as white benevolence and black loyalty
- New England: center of Am. Lit
- transcendentalism: belief in a single God that manifests in all parts of the universe
- romanticism: against reason in favor of emotion, intuition, individualism, and nature as a dwelling of divinity
- Some writers mimicked the British: William Cullen Bryant imitated William Wordsworth and James Fenimore Cooper imitated Sir Walter Scott
- Other writers completely differed: Poe and Hawthorne develop short story, Whitman writes from a strictly American POV
- Fireside poets (families read them during harsh New England winters): Oliver Wendell Holmes, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, John Greenleaf Whittier

Romantic Works and Writers: William Cullen Bryant

- austere, intelligent poems
- nature, the woods, death
- "Thanatopsis"

Romantic Works and Writers: James Fenimore Cooper

- The Last of the Mohicans: French and Indian War
- The Pioneers- romantic and historic fiction similar to Sir Walter Scott

Romantic Works and Writers: Ralph Waldo Emerson

- hard work, intellectual spirit
- importance of learning about nature firsthand
- spiritual descendent of Jonathan Edwards
- "Nature", "Poems", "Representative Men", "The Conduct of Life", "English Traits"

Romantic Works and Writers: Nathaniel Hawthorne

- The Scarlet Letter
- The House of Seven Gables

Romantic Works and Writers: Oliver Wendell Holmes

- New England poet
- "The Deacon's Masterpiece: or The Wonderful One-Hoss Shay"
- logic of Calvinism

Romantic Works and Writers: Herman Melville

- Moby Dick (Captain Ahab dies harpooning the whale that took his leg)
- combined symbolism and romance

Romantic Works and Writers: Edgar Allen Poe

- "The Raven", "To Helen", "Annabelle Lee", "The Tell-Tale Heart", "The Cask of Amontillado", "The Fall of the House of Usher"
- gothic, psychologically thrilling
- death of women: strangeness in beauty

Romantic Works and Writers: William Gimore Simms

- the frontier and the Revolution
- "The Yemasee"

Romantic Works and Writers: Henry David Thoreau

- nature, civil disobedience
- "On Walden Pond", "On the Duty of Civil Disobedience"
- transcendentalist, individualist, self-reliance, spiritual growth

Romantic Works and Writers: Walt Whitman

- "Leaves of Grass"
- rejected traditional verse, meter, rhyme, diction
- democracy and the individual common man
- sensual work

Am. Lit. 1: Civil War Literature (1861-1865): Historical Background and Literary Elements

- John Brown was a hero in the eyes of Thoreau and Emerson
- Transcendentalism connected with abolitionism
- Writing reflected tensions in the country
- New historicism rather than formalism

Civil War Works and Writers: Frederick Douglass

- American social reformer, orator, writer and statesman
- leader of the abolitionist movement
- stood as a living counter-example to slaveholders' arguments that slaves did not have the intellectual capacity to function as independent American citizens
- firm believer in the equality of all people, whether black, female, Native American, or recent immigrant,
- Wrote "Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave"

Civil War Works and Writers: Abraham Lincoln

- Gettysburg address
- uneducated, successful lawyer

Civil War Works and Writers: Harriet Beecher Stowe

- Uncle Tom's Cabin
- "the little woman who caused the great war"
- realistic picture of contemporary life, rather than romantic adventures of the past

Civil War Works and Writers: David Walker

- pamphlet titled "Appeal to the Citizens of the World"
- united history, classical rhetoric, and the Bible
- inhumanity of slavery

Am. Lit. 1: Sectional Independence and Local Color Literature (1865-1930): Historical Context and Literary Elements

- immigrants moving westward
- Reconstruction
- By 1900, America a leading economic power
- northern industry
- Rockefeller, Morgan, Gould, Carnegie, Hill
- success and the American dream
- the Guilded Age
- themes of conformity, self-discipline, dreams of material comfort
- moral tales of rags to riches
- Johnny Appleseed and Pecos Bill
- regional differences- romance of Far West, rusticity of Midwest, glamour of South
- poetry, elegy, puns, allegory, satire

Sectional Independence and Local Color Works and Writers: George Washington Cable

- Old Creole Days
- New Orleans

Sectional Independence and Local Color Works and Writers: Willa Cather

- life on Nebraska prairie
- O Pioneers about Swedish immigrant
- My Antonia
- Paul's Case about a gay man who kills himself

Sectional Independence and Local Color Works and Writers: Kate Chopin

- Bayou Folk and A Night in Acadia about Creole people and customs
- The Awakening- theme of passion dominating civility

Sectional Independence and Local Color Works and Writers: Samuel Langhorne Clemens, "Mark Twain"

- vernacular, exaggeration, deadpan narration to create humor
- The Adventures of Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn
- controversial
The Prince and the Pauper

Sectional Independence and Local Color Works and Writers: Bret Harte

- made the West a favorite realm of fiction

Am. Lit. 1: Realism and Realist Literature (1890-1920): Historical Context and Literary Elements

- Scientific interest (Darwin) and social consciousness (Marx)
- reaction to false beauty of Victorianism
- points out cruel and ugly side of life
- humanism and new humanism: classical and Christian philosophers, self-restraint
- Naturalism: man's subjection to natural law

Realism and Realist Works and Writers: William Dean Howells

- father of American realism
- social issues, race, female professions

Realism and Realist Works and Writers: Henry James

- most noted for contrasting American and European cultures
- Daisy Miller, The Portrait of a Lady

Realism and Realist Works and Writers: William James

- American philosophy
- The Varieties of Religious Experience
- conversion, the sick soul, blind faith

Realism and Realist Works and Writers: Edith Wharton

- destructive effects of social conventions
- The House of Mirth, Ethan Frome

Am. Lit. 1: Naturalist Literature (1900-1914): Historical Context and Literary Elements

- man's subjection to the laws of nature
- natural selection
- man lacks free will, controlled by passions and environment
- omits moral considerations, stresses unpleasant phases of life
- overwhelming technological changes
- two devastating world wars
- alienation, disconnection
- fragments, stream of consciousness, interior dialogue

Naturalist Works and Writers: Stephen Crane

- first naturalist
- The Red Badge of Courage about a Civil War soldier
- poetry similar to Dickinson

Naturalist Works and Writers: Charlotte Perkins Gilman

- Women and Economics
- complete emancipation of women
- The Yellow Wallpaper

Naturalist Works and Writers: Jack London

- self- educated, tramp at 18
- Call of the Wild
- survival of the fittest
- protagonists reflect Nietzsche's concept of superman

Am. Lit. 1: American Modernism (1914-1945): Historical Context and Literary Elements

- reflected dominant mood of period: alienation & disconnection
- extensive use of fragments, stream of consciousness, and interior dialogue
- regionalism re-emerged
-certain writers wrote from a particular social, cultural and ethnic perspective about social, cultural and ethnic interests for a particular social, cultural and ethnic audience

American Modernism Works and Writers: William Faulkner

- decline of aristocratic families
- convincing portrayal of abnormal minds
- richly descriptive
- heritage, southern memory, reality, myth
- As I Lay Dying, The Sound and the Fury

American Modernism Works and Writers: F. Scott Fitzgerald

- manners, moods, culture of 1920s
- Great Gatsby: American success myth

American Modernism Works and Writers: Ernest Hemingway

- lost generation
- feelings of war-wounded people
- stoic writing style
- understatement and dialogue
- concise, direct, spare, objective, precise, rhythmic
- The Sun Also Rises, A Farewell to Arms, For Whom the Bell Tolls, The Old Man and the Sea (parable of man against nature)

American Modernism Works and Writers: John Steinbeck

- naturalism and symbolism to express rage and compassion for plight of farmers displaced by Depression and Dust Bowl
- social justice
- Grapes of Wrath, Of Mice and Men

American Modernism Works and Writers: Upton Sinclair

- The Jungle: meatpacking industry
- poverty, horrendous living conditions, hopelessness

American Modernism Major Twentieth Century Poets: T.S. Eliot

- questions our place in the universe
- humankind's ability to love and communicate: "Love Song of L. Alfred Prufrock"
- failure of Western civilization "The Waste Land"

American Modernism Major Twentieth Century Poets: Ezra Pound

- ordinary language, free verse, concentrated word pictures
- imagism: clarity, word choice
- The Cantos

American Modernism Major Twentieth Century Poets: e.e. cummings

- form, punctuation, spelling, font, grammar, imagery, rhythm, syntax
- The Enormous Room
- Tulips and Chimneys
- XLI Poems

American Modernism Major Twentieth Century Poets: Robert Frost

- traditional verse forms
- plain speech of rural New Englanders
- conflict between nature and industrialization
- "Death of the Hired Man", "Birches", "Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening", "The Road Not Taken", "Out! Out!", "Mending Wall"

American Modernism Major Twentieth Century Poets: Carl Sandburg

- positive tone, simple words, free verse
- Chicago Poems

American Modernism Major Twentieth Century Poets: William Carlos Williams

- physician, observed working class pregnant women
- American speech, expression, local culture, ethnicity, rhythm
- The Young Housewife, The Red Wheelbarrow, This Is Just to Say

Am. Lit. 1: Harlem Renaissance (1915-1929) Literature: Literary Elements

- alienation and disconnection
- fragments, stream of consciousness, interior dialogue
- black cultural movement
- second emancipation which freed will and achievements, especially the artists and intellectuals

Harlem Renaissance Works and Writers: Countee Cullen

- traditional forms

Harlem Renaissance Works and Writers: Langston Hughes

- poetry, drama, novels, songs, movie scripts
- empathized with down and out blacks
- "Harlem", "Montage of a Dream Deferred", "Ask Your Mama"

Harlem Renaissance Works and Writers: Zora Neale Hurston

- revise and adapt vernacular form to give voice to women
- Their Eyes Were Watching God

Harlem Renaissance Works and Writers: Claude McKay

- native Jamaican
- "If We Must Die"
- first black poet to write an Elizabethan sonnet: statement of irony
- advocated violent resistance to violence

Harlem Renaissance Works and Writers: Jean Toomer

- Cane: personal journey to southern roots
- South a place of racial prejudice and violence

Am. Lit. 2: Twentieth Century to the Present: Historical Context and Literary Elements

- a media- saturated culture
- post- WWII prosperity, protest against Vietnam, civil rights movement, black militancy, new century
- postmodernism
- blurring lines of reality
- fantasy, nonfiction
- individual in isolation, detached, unemotional, humorless
- Beat writers: intellectual, pre-hippie
- Confessional writers: America's hidden despair
- ethnic and women writers

Beat Works and Writers: William S. Burroughs

- experimental novels
- "Naked Lunch": autobiography, life as a drug dealer

Beat Works and Writers: Allen Ginsberg

- countered hidden despair of 1950s
- Howl: exuberant language

Beat Works and Writers: Jack Kerouac

- On the Road: Bohemian lifestyle and wild road trips
- critics thought it represented lack of morality of youth

Confessional Works and Writers: Robert Lowell

- Land of Unlikeness
- Lord Weary's Castle
- rigidly formal style
- dark side of America's Puritan legacy

Confessional Works and Writers: Sylvia Plath

- wrote about suicide
- The Bell Jar (woman trapped by society)

Confessional Works and Writers: Anne Sexton

- "Live or Die" addresses reality of depression and suicide
- she committed suicide

Prose and Theater from 1950-Present: Conrad Aiken

- Silent Snow, Secret Snow
- somewhat autobiographical, young man cut off from society

Prose and Theater from 1950-Present: Ray Bradbury

- Fahrenheit 451: world ruled by totalitarian government
- The Martian Chronicle: futuristic story about colonizing Mars

Prose and Theater from 1950-Present: Shirley Jackson

- The Lottery

Prose and Theater from 1950-Present: Arthur Miller

- Death of a Salesman: Willy Loman: destruction of the American dream
- The Crucible

Prose and Theater from 1950-Present: Flannery O' Connor

- southern Gothic style
- critique the weaknesses of humankind
- found Christianity uncompromising
- "A Good Man is Hard to Find" about evil, decay, superficiality

Prose and Theater from 1950-Present: Dorothy Parker

- poet and critic
- sardonic wit
- wrote in Vanity Fair, The New Yorker, Life

Prose and Theater from 1950-Present: J.D. Salinger

- The Catcher in the Rye
- symbol for a generation of disaffected youth
- Holden Caulfield believes all adults are phonies

Prose and Theater from 1950-Present: Gertrude Stein

- against traditional narrative because it relied on habit and continuity rather than spontaneity and memory
- "Composition as Explanation"

Prose and Theater from 1950-Present: James Thurber

- The Secret Life of Walter Mitty: husband who has heroic daydreams
- absurdist cartoons

Prose and Theater from 1950-Present: Kurt Vonnegut

- satirical novelist
- Slaughterhouse Five: a WWII soldier who experiences time travel
- A humanist

Prose and Theater from 1950-Present: Eudora Welly

- "The Robber Bridegroom"
- understand past with present
- landscape and history are both fictions dependent on facts of space and time

Contemporary African American Works and Writers: Maya Angelou

- autobiography, picaresque fiction, social history
- I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings

Contemporary African American Works and Writers: James Baldwin

- Go Tell It on the Mountain: autobiography about growing up in Harlem
- civil rights movement
- The Fire Next Time: racial struggle, black identity

Contemporary African American Works and Writers: Gwendolyn Brooks

- first black female poet to win Pulitzer Prize
- "Riot" and "Family Pictures": racial harmony
- "Beckonings" and "To Disembark": disappointment in conflict between civil writes and black militancy

Contemporary African American Works and Writers: Ralph Ellison

- "Invisible Man": society willfully ignores blacks
- "Shadow and Act": critic social and political essays

Contemporary African American Works and Writers: Toni Morrison

- first black women to receive Novel Prize
- "Sula", "Beloved", "The Bluest Eye", "Song of Solomon": recurrence of past events to depict horrors of slavery and struggles of free blacks

Contemporary African American Works and Writers: Alice Walker

- "The Color Purple": poor, oppressed black women in the early 1900s
- "Everyday Use"- short story
- "In Love and Trouble: Stories of Black Women": two daughters with conflicting ideas about identity & heritage

Contemporary African American Works and Writers: Richard Wright

- "Black Boy": struggle for individualism
- "American Hunger": disillusionment with Communist Party
- more than 4,000 haikus

Contemporary Asian American Works and Writers: Maxine Hong Kingston

- "The Woman Warrior: Memoirs of a Girlhood among Ghosts": shy girl finds resolution as she breaks her female silence
- "China Men": strengths & achievements of first Chinese immigrants, prejudices they faced

Contemporary Asian American Works and Writers: Amy Tan

- "The Kitchen God's Wife": chronicles early life of mother who escapes Chinese civil war & the Communist take over to come to America
- "The Joy Luck Club": four Chinese immigrant families who start the club playing mahjong

Contemporary Jewish American Works and Writers: Saul Bellow

- Nobel Prize for "Herzog" and "Seize the Day"
- urban Jews struggling to find spirituality and comfort in a racist and alienating society

Contemporary Jewish American Works and Writers: Bernard Malamud

- master of parables and myths
- "The Natural": baseball player Eddie Waitkus tries to make a comeback after being shot by a serial killer

Contemporary Jewish American Works and Writers: Elie Wiesel

- Holocaust survivor
- addresses Judaism, the Holocaust, racism, hatred, genocide
- "Night": memoir depicting Weisel's struggle & guilt over being the only family member to survive the Holocaust

Contemporary Latino American Works and Writers: Julia Alvarez

- Dominican Republic, Trujillo dictatorship
- "How the Garcia Girls Lost Their Accents": describes difficulties of learning American English and being called a "spic" at school

Contemporary Latino American Works and Writers: Sandra Cisneros

- Mexican American
- reveals misogyny (men's denigration of women) present in both cultures
- "The House on Mango Street": a young girl, Esperanza, growing up in the Latino section of Chicago and coming into her own

Contemporary Native American Works and Writers: Louise Erdich

- Chippewa Indian who grew up around the tradition of storytelling
- "Love Medicine":
- nonhierarchical terms using speakers of various ages and stations within community
- cyclically rather than chronologically

Contemporary Native American Works and Writers: N. Scott Momaday

- Kiowa Native American; grew up on reservation in the Southwest, far away from schools and letters
- Pulitzer Prize for "House Made of Dawn": semi autobiographical account of his life in Jemez Pueblo

Brit. Lit. 1: Anglo-Saxon or Old English Literature (450-1066): Historical Context and Literary Elements

- 55 BC, Julius Caesar colonized Britain and introduced Christianity
- Jutes, Angles, Saxons invaded Britain, giving rise to Anglo-Saxon period
- heroic age of English literature
- epic battles, heroic feats, supernatural characters

Anglo-Saxon Works and Writers: Beowulf

- English belief in fate
- pre-Christianity Norse legend of Sigmund the dragon slayer
- Swedish warrior prince ventures to Denmark to kill Grendel
- Beowulf slays Grendel, Grendel's mother kills Beowulf
- epic poem, narrative verse
- order vs. disorder, man vs. nature
- contains alliterative meter, kenning, stock epithet, and caesura

Beowulf: alliterative meter

- two or three alliterating stressed syllables in each line

Beowulf: kenning

- complex phrase that replaces a simpler word to add color to a poem or evoke imagery

Beowulf: stock epithet

- descriptive word or phrase used repeatedly in place of a name

Beowulf: caesura

- a break in a line or poetry or a grammatical pause

Anglo-Saxon Works and Writers: The Ecclesiastical History of the English People

- Bede, first English historian
- explains how Latin was integrated into English schooling
- Christianity spread literacy
- introduced Roman alphabet to Britain

Anglo-Saxon Works and Writers: The Seafarer

- lyric poem
- hardships of living at sea vs. comforts of settled life on land
- elegy: In Old English, a complaint about struggles of isolation told in first person
- metaphor for Christian self-denial

Brit Lit 1: Medieval or Middle English Literature (1066-1510): Historical context and Literary elements

- 1066, William the Conqueror and French Normans conquer British lowlands
- William invited full participation in Church
- ideas of chivalry, feudal obligations
- Literary forms enabled church to instruct and guide
- Morality plays: vice vs. virtue, mankind's struggle with his soul
- allegory, a symbolic story that has a moral, political, or spiritual meaning
- mystery and miracle plays dramatize biblical events, depict punishment for those who revolt against God
- Folk ballads: short, traditional narratives told in song
- Frame stories: story within a story (Chaucer)

Medieval Works and Writers: The Domesday Book

- the church's wealth
- material and territorial possessions of aristocracy

Medieval Works and Writers: Geoffrey Chaucer

- The Canterbury Tales
- vernacular
- chronicles told by 29 people of different classes during a pilgrimage
- cross section of British life

Medieval Works and Writers: Sir Gawayne and the Grene Knight

- 1st great love story
- tale of chivalry and emotion
- two Celtic legends: the Beheading and the Wooing
- Alliterative verse
- each stanza concluded with a bob, five short lines rhyming ababa

Medieval Works and Writers: Sir Thomas Malory

- Le Morte d' Arthur
- about King Arthur, Merlin, Guenevere & the Knights of the Round Table
- political feudalism, chivalric code

Brit Lit 1: Renaissance Literature (1510-1660): Historical Context

- intellectual and cultural movement, reemergence of scholarship, ancient learning, religious and scientific inquiry
- liberation of individual from tyranny
- "here and now"
- geographic exploration
- printing press and Copernican system
- The Reformation challenged dogma of Church
- King Henry VIII
- Martin Luther's 95 Theses (indulgences, purgatory)
- The Elizabethan Age- Elizabeth I established Protestantism, peace, nationalism, defeat of Catholic Spain

Brit Lit 1: Elizabethan Literature (1558-1603): Historical Context

- Elizabeth's reign allows arts to flourish
- The Globe Theatre

Elizabethan Works and Writers: William Shakespeare

- 37 plays and numerous sonnets
- History: power struggles with monarchs (King John in the 100 Years War with France, Joan of Arc in Henry V and struggle between House of York and House of Lancaster in War of Roses)
- Tragedies: tragic hero, a man of rank who suffers profound calamity which eventually leads to his death, always responsible for their downfalls (Macbeth, Hamlet, King Lear, Othello, Julius Caesar, Romeo and Juliet)
- Comedies: happy ending, marriage, disguises, mistaken identities, five acts, third containing climax
- Tragicomedies, romances, or pastorals: medieval tales, nature, hero on a quest, suffering, happy ending
- Problem Plays: negotiate a contemporary social problem or moral dilemma

Elizabethan Works and Writers: Thomas More

- ideals of political and social order, education, religion
- Utopia: religious toleration, opposes war, physical perfection

Elizabethan Works and Writers: Edmund Spencer

- The Faerie Queene
- virtues and discipline of a gentleman or nobleman
- struggle of Church with atheism and paganism

Elizabethan Works and Writers: Sir Thomas Wyatt

- introduced the English sonnet

Elizabethan Works and Writers: John Lyly

- "Euphues or the Anatomy of Wit"
- father of euphuism
- complex sentence structure using much parallelism and including proverbs

Elizabethan Works and Writers: Christopher Marlowe

- Tragical History of Doctor Faustus
- The Jew of Malta
- 1st to use blank verse in drama
- also known for poetry, especially "The Passionate Shepherd"

Elizabethan Works and Writers: Thomas Nashe

-satirist, poet, pamphleteer, playwright and novelist
- critiqued contemporaries that plagiarized the works of classical authors

Elizabethan Works and Writers: George Peele

- dramatist & lyricist
- known for flowery diction & poetic beauty
- wrote blank verse that was musical & sweet

Elizabethan Works and Writers: Sir Walter Raleigh

-navigator, explorer, historian, poet, courtier, & member of Parliament
- one of Queen Elizabeth's favorities
- The History of the World and a series of poems, one of which was a response to Christopher Marlowe's "The Passionate Shepherd"

Elizabethan Works and Writers: Sir Phillip Sydney

- romanticized pastoral and rustic way of life
- chivalry
- The Defense of Poetry

Brit Lit 1: Jacobean Literature (1603-1625): Historical Context and Literary Elements

- King James Stuart ascends throne in 1603
- Puritans
- King James Bible
- raised taxes
- sophistication and literary rivalry
- expressed anxiety about crisis between church and court
- metaphysical poetry
- metaphors, striking phrases, witty colloquialisms
- intentionally cerebral & difficult to understand

Jacobean Works and Writers: Francis Bacon

- challenged medieval beliefs about science
- championed scientific method of inquiry (using data gathered via the senses to discover knowledge about the natural world)

Jacobean Works and Writers: John Donne

- metaphysical poet
- worldly experiences
- two anti-Catholic arguments
- The Flea, An Atomy of the World, Death Be Not Proud, Holy Sonnets

Jacobean Works and Writers: Ben Jonson

- satiric comedies
- Every Man in His Humour
- human actions based on impulse

Jacobean Works and Writers: Thomas Middleton

- humorous cynicism about the human race
- A Calvinist
- A Chaste Maid in Cheapside, Women Beware Women, The Changeling

Brit Lit 1: Carolinean Literature (1629-1649): Historical Context and Literary Elements

- Charles Stuart I, 1625
- Thirty Years War
- Charles ruled England with Parliament
- Cavaliers: loyal to Charles, Roundheads: loyal to Parliament
- Cavalier poetry aligned with "libertine lifestyle": love and sex, the ideal of being careless
- "carpe diem" (seize the day)
- Stuart monarchy encouraged circulation of literature & masques (static, superficial, spectacular pageants rich in costume, scenery, and song with a casual story line)

Carolinean Works and Writers: Robert Herrick

- carpe diem poetry
- "To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time" from which comes the quote "Gather ye rosebuds while ye may".

Carolinean Works and Writers: Richard Lovelace

- Cavalier poet and Royalist
- To Althea, From Prison "Stone walls do not a prison make, nor iron bars a cage."

Carolinean Works and Writers: Andrew Marvell

- carpe diem poetry & satire
- "To His Coy Mistress": speaker tries to convince his wife to have sex

Carolinean Works and Writers: John Milton

- Puritan countercultural poetry that was solemn, religious, and puritanical
- "Paradise Lost": epic poem written in blank verse, and defied the clear, simple, sensual carpe diem poetry of the period
- "Lycidas": poem that laments the demise of a dear school friend

Carolinean Works and Writers: Sir John Suckling

- Cavalier poet
- light, melodious lyrical
- "Ballad Upon a Wedding"
- elements of masques to his drama

Brit Lit 1: Commonwealth Age (1649-1660): Historical Context

- Oliver Cromwell, a Roundhead, presides in lieu of a traditional monarchy
- his son was a terrible ruler, so he abdicated the throne
- The Restoration of Charles II, reaction against extreme Puritanism
- James II, a Catholic then took the throne
- James eventually deposed
- William of Orange and Mary both Protestants then took the throne
- agrarian economy moving toward international trade
- increased colonization, trade in India, America, East Indies
- mercantile class, stock market

Brit Lit 1: Commonwealth Age: Literary Elements

- Restoration comedies
- sexually explicit, address topics of the day, busy plots, celebrity actors and actresses
- entertained murder, incest, madness set in Italy or Spain
-macabre in nature; included villains and other characters that went to their deaths

Commonwealth Works and Writers: John Dryden

- founder of modern English prose, first great English critic
- most representative writer of Restoration
- heroic dramas
- All for Love, The Hind, The Panther, The Rehearsal

Commonwealth Works and Writers: John Bunyan

- a preacher
- Christian allegory
- The Pilgrim's Progress
- simple and plain language
- character named Christian encounters various perils on his way to Heaven where vices and virtues are personified

Commonwealth Works and Writers: Thomas Hobbes

- "Leviathan": encouraged absolute sovereignty, otherwise endless war
- man's corruptible, materialistic, egotistic nature

Commonwealth Works and Writers: Lucy Hutchinson

- Puritan author
- wife of one of Cromwell's officers
- "Memoirs of the Life of Colonel Hutchinson": describes lust and intemperance James I wrought on the throne

Brit Lit 1: Eighteenth Century Literature (1690-1780): Historical Context

- new morality of order, measure, propriety
- new thinking in science and philosophy
- Sir Isaac Newton's Principia: laws in nature can be demonstrated by math and physics
- rationalism, formalism, reason
- Descartes's "I think, therefore I am."
- John Locke, political philosopher
- understanding of reality derives from senses
- education can free people from tyranny
- government obligated to ensure individual rights

Brit Lit 1: Eighteenth Century Literature: Literary Elements

- reasoned argument, good humor, common sense
- Francis Bacon tradition
- neoclassicism (imitation of Virgil, Cicero, Horace, Lucretius)
- beginning of newspaper
- return to satire and comedic banter
- Age of the Novel

Eighteenth Century Works and Writers: Daniel Defoe

- "Robinson Crusoe" fixed form of historical novel, leading to Sir Walter Scott's "Waverly" and "Ivanhoe"

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