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MTEL: English (07)

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Am. Lit. 1: Precolonial and Early Native American (1500-1607): Historical context and Literary elements
- no authentic record
- songs, myths, legends
- European exploration
- folklore: beauty and awe of nature
- myth: stories passed down, cultural and religious rituals.
Am. Lit 1: Colonial Literature (1607-1763): Historical context and literary elements
- Puritan settlers breaking from English church
- Salem witch trials- Cotton Mather
- literature dominated by religion and politics
- Plain rhetoric, logic, clarity
- Allegories- spiritual significance
- Puritan diaries, passed down
- Determinism and righteousness
Colonial Works and Writers: William Bradford
- best source for info about Pilgrims
- "History of Plymouth Plantation"
- "The Mayflower Compact"
Colonial Works and Writers: Anne Bradstreet
- The Tenth Muse
- Lately Sprung Up in America
- philosophical subjects
- influenced by Elizabethan poets
- colonial New England life
Colonial Works and Writers: William Byrd
- A History of the Dividing Line
- journey into Carolinian swamps
- Cavalier poet
Colonial Works and Writers: Jonathan Edwards
- Personal Narrative
- believed in God's infinite power
- against liberalism in Church
- sermon, "Sinners in Hands of an Angry God"
Colonial Works and Writers: Richard Mather
- leader of Separatist church in Mass
- Bay Psalm Book
Colonial Works and Writers: Samuel Sewall
- one of the first colonists to write pamphlets against slavery and mistreatment of Indians
Colonial Works and Writers: John Smith
- his story characterizes the inevitability of white triumph over Indian opposition
- Description of New England
Colonial Works and Writers: John Winthrop
- governor of Mass colony
- A Model of Christian Charity
Am Lit. 1: Revolutionary Literature (1764-1789): Historical context and Literary elements
- Declaration of Independence and Constitution
- Benjamin Franklin: peculiar genius of America
- Franklin's "Dogood Papers", "Autobiography"
- secular, reason primary guide
- American myth/story: rags to riches
- Nationalist poetry
Revolutionary Works and Writers: John and Abigail Adams
- Letters document the Revolution
Revolutionary Works and Writers: Benjamin Franklin
- Poor Richard's Almanack: weather predictions, brief sayings of virtue
Revolutionary Works and Writers: Alexander Hamilton
- 85 essays: "The Federalist" in order to secure ratification of Constitution
Revolutionary Works and Writers: Patrick Henry
- a great orator
- "Give me liberty or give me death."
Revolutionary Works and Writers: Thomas Jefferson
- Declaration of Independence
Revolutionary Works and Writers: Thomas Paine
- Common Sense
- political independence
Revolutionary Works and Writers: Gustavus Vassa
- leading figure in the 18th century abolition movement
Revolutionary Works and Writers: George Washington
- Farewell to the Army of the Potomac
- traditions of strong central government, isolation from European politics, two-term limits for presidents
Revolutionary Works and Writers: Phillis Wheatley
- African-born black woman captured and sold as a slave to Boston merchant, John Wheatley, who taught her to read and write and encouraged her poetry.
- Over 1/3 of her poems consist of elegies, the remainder being on religious, classical, and abstract themes.
- three primary elements of her poetry: Christianity, classicism, and hierophantic solar worship.
- wrote "Poems on Various Subjects"
Am. Lit. 1: Romantic Literature (1790-1865): Historical Context
- America begins expanding westward (Manifest Destiny)
- War of 1812: "Star Spangled Banner" by Francis Scott Key
- Henry Clay: Missouri Compromise, abolition
- John C. Calhoun: supporter of slavery, states rights
- Daniel Webster: nationalist, opposed Calhoun
Romantic Literature: Literary Elements
- emergence of early American folktales
- southern writers: propaganda in defense of slavery, romance fictions, chivalric melodramas
- Plantation novels portray slavery as white benevolence and black loyalty
- New England: center of Am. Lit
- transcendentalism: belief in a single God that manifests in all parts of the universe
- romanticism: against reason in favor of emotion, intuition, individualism, and nature as a dwelling of divinity
- Some writers mimicked the British: William Cullen Bryant imitated William Wordsworth and James Fenimore Cooper imitated Sir Walter Scott
- Other writers completely differed: Poe and Hawthorne develop short story, Whitman writes from a strictly American POV
- Fireside poets (families read them during harsh New England winters): Oliver Wendell Holmes, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, John Greenleaf Whittier
Romantic Works and Writers: William Cullen Bryant
- austere, intelligent poems
- nature, the woods, death
- "Thanatopsis"
Romantic Works and Writers: James Fenimore Cooper
- The Last of the Mohicans: French and Indian War
- The Pioneers- romantic and historic fiction similar to Sir Walter Scott
Romantic Works and Writers: Ralph Waldo Emerson
- hard work, intellectual spirit
- importance of learning about nature firsthand
- spiritual descendent of Jonathan Edwards
- "Nature", "Poems", "Representative Men", "The Conduct of Life", "English Traits"
Romantic Works and Writers: Nathaniel Hawthorne
- The Scarlet Letter
- The House of Seven Gables
Romantic Works and Writers: Oliver Wendell Holmes
- New England poet
- "The Deacon's Masterpiece: or The Wonderful One-Hoss Shay"
- logic of Calvinism
Romantic Works and Writers: Herman Melville
- Moby Dick (Captain Ahab dies harpooning the whale that took his leg)
- combined symbolism and romance
Romantic Works and Writers: Edgar Allen Poe
- "The Raven", "To Helen", "Annabelle Lee", "The Tell-Tale Heart", "The Cask of Amontillado", "The Fall of the House of Usher"
- gothic, psychologically thrilling
- death of women: strangeness in beauty
Romantic Works and Writers: William Gimore Simms
- the frontier and the Revolution
- "The Yemasee"
Romantic Works and Writers: Henry David Thoreau
- nature, civil disobedience
- "On Walden Pond", "On the Duty of Civil Disobedience"
- transcendentalist, individualist, self-reliance, spiritual growth
Romantic Works and Writers: Walt Whitman
- "Leaves of Grass"
- rejected traditional verse, meter, rhyme, diction
- democracy and the individual common man
- sensual work
Am. Lit. 1: Civil War Literature (1861-1865): Historical Background and Literary Elements
- John Brown was a hero in the eyes of Thoreau and Emerson
- Transcendentalism connected with abolitionism
- Writing reflected tensions in the country
- New historicism rather than formalism
Civil War Works and Writers: Frederick Douglass
- American social reformer, orator, writer and statesman
- leader of the abolitionist movement
- stood as a living counter-example to slaveholders' arguments that slaves did not have the intellectual capacity to function as independent American citizens
- firm believer in the equality of all people, whether black, female, Native American, or recent immigrant,
- Wrote "Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave"
Civil War Works and Writers: Abraham Lincoln
- Gettysburg address
- uneducated, successful lawyer
Civil War Works and Writers: Harriet Beecher Stowe
- Uncle Tom's Cabin
- "the little woman who caused the great war"
- realistic picture of contemporary life, rather than romantic adventures of the past
Civil War Works and Writers: David Walker
- pamphlet titled "Appeal to the Citizens of the World"
- united history, classical rhetoric, and the Bible
- inhumanity of slavery
Am. Lit. 1: Sectional Independence and Local Color Literature (1865-1930): Historical Context and Literary Elements
- immigrants moving westward
- Reconstruction
- By 1900, America a leading economic power
- northern industry
- Rockefeller, Morgan, Gould, Carnegie, Hill
- success and the American dream
- the Guilded Age
- themes of conformity, self-discipline, dreams of material comfort
- moral tales of rags to riches
- Johnny Appleseed and Pecos Bill
- regional differences- romance of Far West, rusticity of Midwest, glamour of South
- poetry, elegy, puns, allegory, satire
Sectional Independence and Local Color Works and Writers: George Washington Cable
- Old Creole Days
- New Orleans
Sectional Independence and Local Color Works and Writers: Willa Cather
- life on Nebraska prairie
- O Pioneers about Swedish immigrant
- My Antonia
- Paul's Case about a gay man who kills himself
Sectional Independence and Local Color Works and Writers: Kate Chopin
- Bayou Folk and A Night in Acadia about Creole people and customs
- The Awakening- theme of passion dominating civility
Sectional Independence and Local Color Works and Writers: Samuel Langhorne Clemens, "Mark Twain"
- vernacular, exaggeration, deadpan narration to create humor
- The Adventures of Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn
- controversial
The Prince and the Pauper
Sectional Independence and Local Color Works and Writers: Bret Harte
- made the West a favorite realm of fiction
Am. Lit. 1: Realism and Realist Literature (1890-1920): Historical Context and Literary Elements
- Scientific interest (Darwin) and social consciousness (Marx)
- reaction to false beauty of Victorianism
- points out cruel and ugly side of life
- humanism and new humanism: classical and Christian philosophers, self-restraint
- Naturalism: man's subjection to natural law
Realism and Realist Works and Writers: William Dean Howells
- father of American realism
- social issues, race, female professions
Realism and Realist Works and Writers: Henry James
- most noted for contrasting American and European cultures
- Daisy Miller, The Portrait of a Lady
Realism and Realist Works and Writers: William James
- American philosophy
- The Varieties of Religious Experience
- conversion, the sick soul, blind faith
Realism and Realist Works and Writers: Edith Wharton
- destructive effects of social conventions
- The House of Mirth, Ethan Frome
Am. Lit. 1: Naturalist Literature (1900-1914): Historical Context and Literary Elements
- man's subjection to the laws of nature
- natural selection
- man lacks free will, controlled by passions and environment
- omits moral considerations, stresses unpleasant phases of life
- overwhelming technological changes
- two devastating world wars
- alienation, disconnection
- fragments, stream of consciousness, interior dialogue
Naturalist Works and Writers: Stephen Crane
- first naturalist
- The Red Badge of Courage about a Civil War soldier
- poetry similar to Dickinson
Naturalist Works and Writers: Charlotte Perkins Gilman
- Women and Economics
- complete emancipation of women
- The Yellow Wallpaper
Naturalist Works and Writers: Jack London
- self- educated, tramp at 18
- Call of the Wild
- survival of the fittest
- protagonists reflect Nietzsche's concept of superman
Am. Lit. 1: American Modernism (1914-1945): Historical Context and Literary Elements
- reflected dominant mood of period: alienation & disconnection
- extensive use of fragments, stream of consciousness, and interior dialogue
- regionalism re-emerged
-certain writers wrote from a particular social, cultural and ethnic perspective about social, cultural and ethnic interests for a particular social, cultural and ethnic audience
American Modernism Works and Writers: William Faulkner
- decline of aristocratic families
- convincing portrayal of abnormal minds
- richly descriptive
- heritage, southern memory, reality, myth
- As I Lay Dying, The Sound and the Fury
American Modernism Works and Writers: F. Scott Fitzgerald
- manners, moods, culture of 1920s
- Great Gatsby: American success myth
American Modernism Works and Writers: Ernest Hemingway
- lost generation
- feelings of war-wounded people
- stoic writing style
- understatement and dialogue
- concise, direct, spare, objective, precise, rhythmic
- The Sun Also Rises, A Farewell to Arms, For Whom the Bell Tolls, The Old Man and the Sea (parable of man against nature)
American Modernism Works and Writers: John Steinbeck
- naturalism and symbolism to express rage and compassion for plight of farmers displaced by Depression and Dust Bowl
- social justice
- Grapes of Wrath, Of Mice and Men
American Modernism Works and Writers: Upton Sinclair
- The Jungle: meatpacking industry
- poverty, horrendous living conditions, hopelessness
American Modernism Major Twentieth Century Poets: T.S. Eliot
- questions our place in the universe
- humankind's ability to love and communicate: "Love Song of L. Alfred Prufrock"
- failure of Western civilization "The Waste Land"
American Modernism Major Twentieth Century Poets: Ezra Pound
- ordinary language, free verse, concentrated word pictures
- imagism: clarity, word choice
- The Cantos
American Modernism Major Twentieth Century Poets: e.e. cummings
- form, punctuation, spelling, font, grammar, imagery, rhythm, syntax
- The Enormous Room
- Tulips and Chimneys
- XLI Poems
American Modernism Major Twentieth Century Poets: Robert Frost
- traditional verse forms
- plain speech of rural New Englanders
- conflict between nature and industrialization
- "Death of the Hired Man", "Birches", "Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening", "The Road Not Taken", "Out! Out!", "Mending Wall"
American Modernism Major Twentieth Century Poets: Carl Sandburg
- positive tone, simple words, free verse
- Chicago Poems
American Modernism Major Twentieth Century Poets: William Carlos Williams
- physician, observed working class pregnant women
- American speech, expression, local culture, ethnicity, rhythm
- The Young Housewife, The Red Wheelbarrow, This Is Just to Say
Am. Lit. 1: Harlem Renaissance (1915-1929) Literature: Literary Elements
- alienation and disconnection
- fragments, stream of consciousness, interior dialogue
- black cultural movement
- second emancipation which freed will and achievements, especially the artists and intellectuals
Harlem Renaissance Works and Writers: Countee Cullen
- traditional forms
Harlem Renaissance Works and Writers: Langston Hughes
- poetry, drama, novels, songs, movie scripts
- empathized with down and out blacks
- "Harlem", "Montage of a Dream Deferred", "Ask Your Mama"
Harlem Renaissance Works and Writers: Zora Neale Hurston
- revise and adapt vernacular form to give voice to women
- Their Eyes Were Watching God
Harlem Renaissance Works and Writers: Claude McKay
- native Jamaican
- "If We Must Die"
- first black poet to write an Elizabethan sonnet: statement of irony
- advocated violent resistance to violence
Harlem Renaissance Works and Writers: Jean Toomer
- Cane: personal journey to southern roots
- South a place of racial prejudice and violence
Am. Lit. 2: Twentieth Century to the Present: Historical Context and Literary Elements
- a media- saturated culture
- post- WWII prosperity, protest against Vietnam, civil rights movement, black militancy, new century
- postmodernism
- blurring lines of reality
- fantasy, nonfiction
- individual in isolation, detached, unemotional, humorless
- Beat writers: intellectual, pre-hippie
- Confessional writers: America's hidden despair
- ethnic and women writers
Beat Works and Writers: William S. Burroughs
- experimental novels
- "Naked Lunch": autobiography, life as a drug dealer
Beat Works and Writers: Allen Ginsberg
- countered hidden despair of 1950s
- Howl: exuberant language
Beat Works and Writers: Jack Kerouac
- On the Road: Bohemian lifestyle and wild road trips
- critics thought it represented lack of morality of youth
Confessional Works and Writers: Robert Lowell
- Land of Unlikeness
- Lord Weary's Castle
- rigidly formal style
- dark side of America's Puritan legacy
Confessional Works and Writers: Sylvia Plath
- wrote about suicide
- The Bell Jar (woman trapped by society)
Confessional Works and Writers: Anne Sexton
- "Live or Die" addresses reality of depression and suicide
- she committed suicide
Prose and Theater from 1950-Present: Conrad Aiken
- Silent Snow, Secret Snow
- somewhat autobiographical, young man cut off from society
Prose and Theater from 1950-Present: Ray Bradbury
- Fahrenheit 451: world ruled by totalitarian government
- The Martian Chronicle: futuristic story about colonizing Mars
Prose and Theater from 1950-Present: Shirley Jackson
- The Lottery
Prose and Theater from 1950-Present: Arthur Miller
- Death of a Salesman: Willy Loman: destruction of the American dream
- The Crucible
Prose and Theater from 1950-Present: Flannery O' Connor
- southern Gothic style
- critique the weaknesses of humankind
- found Christianity uncompromising
- "A Good Man is Hard to Find" about evil, decay, superficiality
Prose and Theater from 1950-Present: Dorothy Parker
- poet and critic
- sardonic wit
- wrote in Vanity Fair, The New Yorker, Life
Prose and Theater from 1950-Present: J.D. Salinger
- The Catcher in the Rye
- symbol for a generation of disaffected youth
- Holden Caulfield believes all adults are phonies
Prose and Theater from 1950-Present: Gertrude Stein
- against traditional narrative because it relied on habit and continuity rather than spontaneity and memory
- "Composition as Explanation"
Prose and Theater from 1950-Present: James Thurber
- The Secret Life of Walter Mitty: husband who has heroic daydreams
- absurdist cartoons
Prose and Theater from 1950-Present: Kurt Vonnegut
- satirical novelist
- Slaughterhouse Five: a WWII soldier who experiences time travel
- A humanist
Prose and Theater from 1950-Present: Eudora Welly
- "The Robber Bridegroom"
- understand past with present
- landscape and history are both fictions dependent on facts of space and time
Contemporary African American Works and Writers: Maya Angelou
- autobiography, picaresque fiction, social history
- I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings
Contemporary African American Works and Writers: James Baldwin
- Go Tell It on the Mountain: autobiography about growing up in Harlem
- civil rights movement
- The Fire Next Time: racial struggle, black identity
Contemporary African American Works and Writers: Gwendolyn Brooks
- first black female poet to win Pulitzer Prize
- "Riot" and "Family Pictures": racial harmony
- "Beckonings" and "To Disembark": disappointment in conflict between civil writes and black militancy
Contemporary African American Works and Writers: Ralph Ellison
- "Invisible Man": society willfully ignores blacks
- "Shadow and Act": critic social and political essays
Contemporary African American Works and Writers: Toni Morrison
- first black women to receive Novel Prize
- "Sula", "Beloved", "The Bluest Eye", "Song of Solomon": recurrence of past events to depict horrors of slavery and struggles of free blacks
Contemporary African American Works and Writers: Alice Walker
- "The Color Purple": poor, oppressed black women in the early 1900s
- "Everyday Use"- short story
- "In Love and Trouble: Stories of Black Women": two daughters with conflicting ideas about identity & heritage
Contemporary African American Works and Writers: Richard Wright
- "Black Boy": struggle for individualism
- "American Hunger": disillusionment with Communist Party
- more than 4,000 haikus
Contemporary Asian American Works and Writers: Maxine Hong Kingston
- "The Woman Warrior: Memoirs of a Girlhood among Ghosts": shy girl finds resolution as she breaks her female silence
- "China Men": strengths & achievements of first Chinese immigrants, prejudices they faced
Contemporary Asian American Works and Writers: Amy Tan
- "The Kitchen God's Wife": chronicles early life of mother who escapes Chinese civil war & the Communist take over to come to America
- "The Joy Luck Club": four Chinese immigrant families who start the club playing mahjong
Contemporary Jewish American Works and Writers: Saul Bellow
- Nobel Prize for "Herzog" and "Seize the Day"
- urban Jews struggling to find spirituality and comfort in a racist and alienating society
Contemporary Jewish American Works and Writers: Bernard Malamud
- master of parables and myths
- "The Natural": baseball player Eddie Waitkus tries to make a comeback after being shot by a serial killer
Contemporary Jewish American Works and Writers: Elie Wiesel
- Holocaust survivor
- addresses Judaism, the Holocaust, racism, hatred, genocide
- "Night": memoir depicting Weisel's struggle & guilt over being the only family member to survive the Holocaust
Contemporary Latino American Works and Writers: Julia Alvarez
- Dominican Republic, Trujillo dictatorship
- "How the Garcia Girls Lost Their Accents": describes difficulties of learning American English and being called a "spic" at school
Contemporary Latino American Works and Writers: Sandra Cisneros
- Mexican American
- reveals misogyny (men's denigration of women) present in both cultures
- "The House on Mango Street": a young girl, Esperanza, growing up in the Latino section of Chicago and coming into her own
Contemporary Native American Works and Writers: Louise Erdich
- Chippewa Indian who grew up around the tradition of storytelling
- "Love Medicine":
- nonhierarchical terms using speakers of various ages and stations within community
- cyclically rather than chronologically
Contemporary Native American Works and Writers: N. Scott Momaday
- Kiowa Native American; grew up on reservation in the Southwest, far away from schools and letters
- Pulitzer Prize for "House Made of Dawn": semi autobiographical account of his life in Jemez Pueblo
Brit. Lit. 1: Anglo-Saxon or Old English Literature (450-1066): Historical Context and Literary Elements
- 55 BC, Julius Caesar colonized Britain and introduced Christianity
- Jutes, Angles, Saxons invaded Britain, giving rise to Anglo-Saxon period
- heroic age of English literature
- epic battles, heroic feats, supernatural characters
Anglo-Saxon Works and Writers: Beowulf
- English belief in fate
- pre-Christianity Norse legend of Sigmund the dragon slayer
- Swedish warrior prince ventures to Denmark to kill Grendel
- Beowulf slays Grendel, Grendel's mother kills Beowulf
- epic poem, narrative verse
- order vs. disorder, man vs. nature
- contains alliterative meter, kenning, stock epithet, and caesura
Beowulf: alliterative meter
- two or three alliterating stressed syllables in each line
Beowulf: kenning
- complex phrase that replaces a simpler word to add color to a poem or evoke imagery
Beowulf: stock epithet
- descriptive word or phrase used repeatedly in place of a name
Beowulf: caesura
- a break in a line or poetry or a grammatical pause
Anglo-Saxon Works and Writers: The Ecclesiastical History of the English People
- Bede, first English historian
- explains how Latin was integrated into English schooling
- Christianity spread literacy
- introduced Roman alphabet to Britain
Anglo-Saxon Works and Writers: The Seafarer
- lyric poem
- hardships of living at sea vs. comforts of settled life on land
- elegy: In Old English, a complaint about struggles of isolation told in first person
- metaphor for Christian self-denial
Brit Lit 1: Medieval or Middle English Literature (1066-1510): Historical context and Literary elements
- 1066, William the Conqueror and French Normans conquer British lowlands
- William invited full participation in Church
- ideas of chivalry, feudal obligations
- Literary forms enabled church to instruct and guide
- Morality plays: vice vs. virtue, mankind's struggle with his soul
- allegory, a symbolic story that has a moral, political, or spiritual meaning
- mystery and miracle plays dramatize biblical events, depict punishment for those who revolt against God
- Folk ballads: short, traditional narratives told in song
- Frame stories: story within a story (Chaucer)
Medieval Works and Writers: The Domesday Book
- the church's wealth
- material and territorial possessions of aristocracy
Medieval Works and Writers: Geoffrey Chaucer
- The Canterbury Tales
- vernacular
- chronicles told by 29 people of different classes during a pilgrimage
- cross section of British life
Medieval Works and Writers: Sir Gawayne and the Grene Knight
- 1st great love story
- tale of chivalry and emotion
- two Celtic legends: the Beheading and the Wooing
- Alliterative verse
- each stanza concluded with a bob, five short lines rhyming ababa
Medieval Works and Writers: Sir Thomas Malory
- Le Morte d' Arthur
- about King Arthur, Merlin, Guenevere & the Knights of the Round Table
- political feudalism, chivalric code
Brit Lit 1: Renaissance Literature (1510-1660): Historical Context
- intellectual and cultural movement, reemergence of scholarship, ancient learning, religious and scientific inquiry
- liberation of individual from tyranny
- "here and now"
- geographic exploration
- printing press and Copernican system
- The Reformation challenged dogma of Church
- King Henry VIII
- Martin Luther's 95 Theses (indulgences, purgatory)
- The Elizabethan Age- Elizabeth I established Protestantism, peace, nationalism, defeat of Catholic Spain
Brit Lit 1: Elizabethan Literature (1558-1603): Historical Context
- Elizabeth's reign allows arts to flourish
- The Globe Theatre
Elizabethan Works and Writers: William Shakespeare
- 37 plays and numerous sonnets
- History: power struggles with monarchs (King John in the 100 Years War with France, Joan of Arc in Henry V and struggle between House of York and House of Lancaster in War of Roses)
- Tragedies: tragic hero, a man of rank who suffers profound calamity which eventually leads to his death, always responsible for their downfalls (Macbeth, Hamlet, King Lear, Othello, Julius Caesar, Romeo and Juliet)
- Comedies: happy ending, marriage, disguises, mistaken identities, five acts, third containing climax
- Tragicomedies, romances, or pastorals: medieval tales, nature, hero on a quest, suffering, happy ending
- Problem Plays: negotiate a contemporary social problem or moral dilemma
Elizabethan Works and Writers: Thomas More
- ideals of political and social order, education, religion
- Utopia: religious toleration, opposes war, physical perfection
Elizabethan Works and Writers: Edmund Spencer
- The Faerie Queene
- virtues and discipline of a gentleman or nobleman
- struggle of Church with atheism and paganism
Elizabethan Works and Writers: Sir Thomas Wyatt
- introduced the English sonnet
Elizabethan Works and Writers: John Lyly
- "Euphues or the Anatomy of Wit"
- father of euphuism
- complex sentence structure using much parallelism and including proverbs
Elizabethan Works and Writers: Christopher Marlowe
- Tragical History of Doctor Faustus
- The Jew of Malta
- 1st to use blank verse in drama
- also known for poetry, especially "The Passionate Shepherd"
Elizabethan Works and Writers: Thomas Nashe
-satirist, poet, pamphleteer, playwright and novelist
- critiqued contemporaries that plagiarized the works of classical authors
Elizabethan Works and Writers: George Peele
- dramatist & lyricist
- known for flowery diction & poetic beauty
- wrote blank verse that was musical & sweet
Elizabethan Works and Writers: Sir Walter Raleigh
-navigator, explorer, historian, poet, courtier, & member of Parliament
- one of Queen Elizabeth's favorities
- The History of the World and a series of poems, one of which was a response to Christopher Marlowe's "The Passionate Shepherd"
Elizabethan Works and Writers: Sir Phillip Sydney
- romanticized pastoral and rustic way of life
- chivalry
- The Defense of Poetry
Brit Lit 1: Jacobean Literature (1603-1625): Historical Context and Literary Elements
- King James Stuart ascends throne in 1603
- Puritans
- King James Bible
- raised taxes
- sophistication and literary rivalry
- expressed anxiety about crisis between church and court
- metaphysical poetry
- metaphors, striking phrases, witty colloquialisms
- intentionally cerebral & difficult to understand
Jacobean Works and Writers: Francis Bacon
- challenged medieval beliefs about science
- championed scientific method of inquiry (using data gathered via the senses to discover knowledge about the natural world)
Jacobean Works and Writers: John Donne
- metaphysical poet
- worldly experiences
- two anti-Catholic arguments
- The Flea, An Atomy of the World, Death Be Not Proud, Holy Sonnets
Jacobean Works and Writers: Ben Jonson
- satiric comedies
- Every Man in His Humour
- human actions based on impulse
Jacobean Works and Writers: Thomas Middleton
- humorous cynicism about the human race
- A Calvinist
- A Chaste Maid in Cheapside, Women Beware Women, The Changeling
Brit Lit 1: Carolinean Literature (1629-1649): Historical Context and Literary Elements
- Charles Stuart I, 1625
- Thirty Years War
- Charles ruled England with Parliament
- Cavaliers: loyal to Charles, Roundheads: loyal to Parliament
- Cavalier poetry aligned with "libertine lifestyle": love and sex, the ideal of being careless
- "carpe diem" (seize the day)
- Stuart monarchy encouraged circulation of literature & masques (static, superficial, spectacular pageants rich in costume, scenery, and song with a casual story line)
Carolinean Works and Writers: Robert Herrick
- carpe diem poetry
- "To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time" from which comes the quote "Gather ye rosebuds while ye may".
Carolinean Works and Writers: Richard Lovelace
- Cavalier poet and Royalist
- To Althea, From Prison "Stone walls do not a prison make, nor iron bars a cage."
Carolinean Works and Writers: Andrew Marvell
- carpe diem poetry & satire
- "To His Coy Mistress": speaker tries to convince his wife to have sex
Carolinean Works and Writers: John Milton
- Puritan countercultural poetry that was solemn, religious, and puritanical
- "Paradise Lost": epic poem written in blank verse, and defied the clear, simple, sensual carpe diem poetry of the period
- "Lycidas": poem that laments the demise of a dear school friend
Carolinean Works and Writers: Sir John Suckling
- Cavalier poet
- light, melodious lyrical
- "Ballad Upon a Wedding"
- elements of masques to his drama
Brit Lit 1: Commonwealth Age (1649-1660): Historical Context
- Oliver Cromwell, a Roundhead, presides in lieu of a traditional monarchy
- his son was a terrible ruler, so he abdicated the throne
- The Restoration of Charles II, reaction against extreme Puritanism
- James II, a Catholic then took the throne
- James eventually deposed
- William of Orange and Mary both Protestants then took the throne
- agrarian economy moving toward international trade
- increased colonization, trade in India, America, East Indies
- mercantile class, stock market
Brit Lit 1: Commonwealth Age: Literary Elements
- Restoration comedies
- sexually explicit, address topics of the day, busy plots, celebrity actors and actresses
- entertained murder, incest, madness set in Italy or Spain
-macabre in nature; included villains and other characters that went to their deaths
Commonwealth Works and Writers: John Dryden
- founder of modern English prose, first great English critic
- most representative writer of Restoration
- heroic dramas
- All for Love, The Hind, The Panther, The Rehearsal
Commonwealth Works and Writers: John Bunyan
- a preacher
- Christian allegory
- The Pilgrim's Progress
- simple and plain language
- character named Christian encounters various perils on his way to Heaven where vices and virtues are personified
Commonwealth Works and Writers: Thomas Hobbes
- "Leviathan": encouraged absolute sovereignty, otherwise endless war
- man's corruptible, materialistic, egotistic nature
Commonwealth Works and Writers: Lucy Hutchinson
- Puritan author
- wife of one of Cromwell's officers
- "Memoirs of the Life of Colonel Hutchinson": describes lust and intemperance James I wrought on the throne
Brit Lit 1: Eighteenth Century Literature (1690-1780): Historical Context
- new morality of order, measure, propriety
- new thinking in science and philosophy
- Sir Isaac Newton's Principia: laws in nature can be demonstrated by math and physics
- rationalism, formalism, reason
- Descartes's "I think, therefore I am."
- John Locke, political philosopher
- understanding of reality derives from senses
- education can free people from tyranny
- government obligated to ensure individual rights
Brit Lit 1: Eighteenth Century Literature: Literary Elements
- reasoned argument, good humor, common sense
- Francis Bacon tradition
- neoclassicism (imitation of Virgil, Cicero, Horace, Lucretius)
- beginning of newspaper
- return to satire and comedic banter
- Age of the Novel
Eighteenth Century Works and Writers: Daniel Defoe
- "Robinson Crusoe" fixed form of historical novel, leading to Sir Walter Scott's "Waverly" and "Ivanhoe"
Eighteenth Century Works and Writers: Henry Fielding
- comedic satirist
- founder of the English prose epic
- "Tom Thumb"
- "The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling"
- "The History of the Adventures of Joseph Andrews" (a parody)
Eighteenth Century Works and Writers: Richard Sheridan
-reestablished prominence of English comedies
-ingenious plots, playfulness of language, and social satire
- The Rivals, The School for Scandal, The Critic
Eighteenth Century Works and Writers: jonathan Swift
- satirist, loathing of mankind
- believed mankind destroyed & ruined everything it touched and men were beasts
- "Gulliver's Travels": political and social satire where humans are filthy horses called Yahoos, ruled by intelligent and noble horses
- "A Modest Proposal": Irish landlords eat children
Eighteenth Century Works and Writers: Samuel Richardson
- first psychological novelist
- "Pamela; or Virtue Rewarded": resisting temptation is virtuous and results in reward
Eighteenth Century Works and Writers: William Congreve
- repartee (banter)
- satirizes high society
- stock characters
- The Way of the World, The Mourning Bride, Love for Love
Eighteenth Century Works and Writers: Dr. Samuel Johnson
- "The Dictionary of the English Language"
- foundation of all subsequent dictionaries
- "The Lives of the Poets" and "The Rambler"
Eighteenth Century Works and Writers: Oliver Goldsmith
- collection of essays: The Citizen of the World
- successful play: She Stoops to Conquer
- novel about English country life: The Vicar of Wakefield
Eighteenth Century Works and Writers: Thomas Gray
- "Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard"
- elegant, melancholic, artificial
Eighteenth Century Works and Writers: Joseph Addison & Richard Steele
- "The Tatler", which became "The Spectator": magazine with topics for educated conversation
- promoted marriage, family, courtesy
Eighteenth Century Works and Writers: James Boswell
- The Life of Samuel Johnson
Eighteenth Century Works and Writers: Horace Walpole
- printing press
- first Gothic novel, Castle of Otranto
- curses, romance, terror, fantasy
Eighteenth Century Works and Writers: James Hogg
- "The Private Memoirs and Confessions of a Justified Sinner": about persecution, torture, delusion, despair
Eighteenth Century Works and Writers: Alexander Pope
-master of Augustan (neoclassical) poetry
- mock, heroic epic poem, "The Rape of the Lock"
- A satire, critiques high society's glamour
Brit Lit 1: Romantic Literature (1780-1830): Historical Context and Literary Elements
- rebellion against neoclassicism
- passion, imagination, deep sense of wonder and mystery
- Jean- Jacques Rousseau
- influenced by the French Revolution
- poetry recounted triumph of human spirit
- humanitarianism and democracy
- Gothic romance
Romantic Works and Writers: Robert Burns
- Scottish poet
- musical poetry, sense of humor, dignity to common man
- Auld Lang Syne
Romantic Works and Writers: William Blake
- pre-Romantic poet, painter, engraver
- anticipated Samuel Taylor Coleridge's simple diction and style
- Songs of Innocence, Songs of Experience: child's perspective of wonder and innocence, adult perspective of ugliness, truth, fear
First Generation Romantic Poets: Samuel Taylor Coleridge
- collaborated with William Wordsworth on Lyrical Ballads
- weird and supernatural, unusual romantic themes, creating hallucinatory realities
- Rime of the Ancient
- Kubla Khan
First Generation Romantic Poets: William Wordsworth
- most renowned romantic poet
- Lyrical Ballads
- love of nature
- The Prelude, semi-autobiographical
Second Generation Romantic Poets: Lord George Byron
- an English poet & leading figure in the Romantic movement

- best-known works: "She Walks in Beauty", "When We Two Parted", and "So, we'll go no more a roving"

- narrative poems include "Childe Harold's Pilgrimage" & "Don Juan" (satiric poem based on the legend of Don Juan, which Byron reverses, portraying Juan not as a womanizer but as someone easily seduced by women).

- Byronic hero = idealised, but flawed character whose attributes include: great talent; great passion; a distaste for society and social institutions; a lack of respect for rank and privilege (although possessing both); being thwarted in love by social constraint or death; rebellion; exile; an unsavory secret past; arrogance; overconfidence or lack of foresight; and, ultimately, a self-destructive manner.
Second Generation Romantic Poets: John Keats
- a return to nature and beauty
- Ode on a Grecian Urn
- Ode to a Nightingale
Second Generation Romantic Poets: Percy Bysshe Shelley
- The Necessity of Atheism
- Prometheus Unbound
- sister Mary Shelley wrote Frankenstein
Romantic Prose Writers: Jane Austen
- perceptive psychology
- romantic comedies
- Pride and Prejudice, Emma, Sense and Sensibility
Romantic Prose Writers: Charles Lamb
- English essayist
- Essays of Elia: mixture of fact and fiction about his grandmother
Romantic Prose Writers: Sir Walter Scott
- popularized genre of historical fiction
- Ivanhoe: Jacobite movement of 1745 to place a Stuart on the throne
Brit Lit 2: Early Victorian Literature (1837-1857): Historical Context
- first half of 18002 marked by social, industrial, and political unrest
- social regulation, rights of the working class
- agrarian economy transitions to industrial one
- Queen Victoria ascends throne
- 1851, Great Exhibition at Crystal Palace: culture and industry
Brit Lit 2: Early Victorian Literature: Literary Elements
- concerned with British society, emerging middle class, regulated society
- lonely and complex individual
- 1848-1848: most significant period in history of English novel
- characters either face dilemmas or are unable to do so
- realistic novels
- poetry: strange and dark depths of the mind
Early Victorian Works and Writers: Charlotte Bronte
- Jane Eyre: position of women, economic life, and conformity and discipline in Victorian Britain
Early Victorian Works and Writers: Emily Bronte
- Wuthering Heights: old way of life vs. new Victorian world
Early Victorian Works and Writers: Elizabeth Barrett Browning
- Sonnets from the Portuguese: "How do I love thee? Let me count the ways."
- Aurora Leigh
Early Victorian Works and Writers: Robert Browning
- My Last Duchess
- collapse, evil, and despair
Early Victorian Works and Writers: Thomas Carlyle
- spiritual autobiography, Sartor Resartus
- history and social problems: Heroes and Hero- Worship
Early Victorian Works and Writers: Charles Dickens
- working class characters, morally advanced middle class
- individual identity
- Oliver Twist, Great Expectations, Tale of Two Cities, David Copperfield
- Bleak House, Dombey and Son: darker novels
Early Victorian Works and Writers: Elizabeth Gaskell
- positive spirit
- North and South
- moral responsibility for well-being of society
- conservative of business and profit
- Wives and Daughters, Sylvia's Lovers, Mary Barton
Early Victorian Works and Writers: Thomas Macaulay
- wrote against slavery
- History of England
Early Victorian Works and Writers: Dante Gabriel Rossetti
- Ballads and Sonnets
- sadness, despair, grief, love, mysticism experienced during nine year engagement and two year marriage
Early Victorian Works and Writers: William Makepeace Thackeray
- castigating the middle-class hero as selfish
- critiqued materialism
- The History of Pendennis, The History of Esmond
Brit Lit 2: Middle Victorian Literature (1857-1876): Historical Context
- 1860s marked a sense of failure
- social legislation to service and maintain society
- Karl Marx: new understanding of the organization of working society
-1870s: Charles Darwin, Karl Marx, Sigmund Freud: evolution, international communism, psychoanalysis
- approved moderation
Brit Lit 2: Middle Victorian Literature: Literary Elements
- critical and dissenting voices
- questioning middle class values
- sensation novel: focuses on ordinary middle-class life but included extravagant, horrible, and sensational events
Middle Victorian Writers and Works: Matthew Arnold
- Dover Beach: poem about the loss of religious faith
- Culture and Anarchy: culture as a vehicle for overcoming difficulties
Middle Victorian Writers and Works: Mary Elizabeth Braddon
- Lady Audley's Secret
- roles imposed upon women in Victorian society
Middle Victorian Writers and Works: Lewis Carroll
- Alice's Adventures in Wonderland
Middle Victorian Writers and Works: Wilkie Collins
- The Woman in White: sensational novel
- The Moonstone questioned British imperialism
Middle Victorian Writers and Works: Charles Darwin
- The Origin of Species
- natural selection
Middle Victorian Writers and Works: George Eliot
- pen name for Mary Anne Evans
- egoism and the duties and obligations of the individual: Adam Bede and Daniel Deronda
- Middlemarch: characters whose egoism is curbed by social obligation
Middle Victorian Writers and Works: Gerard Manley Hopkins
- Jesuit poet
- glorified God
- Pied Beauty, Thou Art Indeed Just, Lord, God's Grandeur
Middle Victorian Writers and Works: John Stuart Mill
- influence on British thought and politics
- A System of Logic, Principles of Political Economy, On Liberty, Utilitarianism, The Subjection of Women, Three Essays on Religion, Autobiography
Middle Victorian Writers and Works: John Ruskin
- Traffic: condemned laissez-faire economics
Middle Victorian Writers and Works: Alfred Lord Tennyson
- greatest English poet of nostalgia
- In Memoriam: elegy about the death of his friend, loss and grief
Middle Victorian Writers and Works: Anthony Trollope
- Phineas Finn: analyzed parliamentary society
- portrays a system that excludes and wastes the talent of women
- The Way We Live Now: satiric picture of a society corrupted by greed and gambling
Brit Lit 2: Late Victorian Literature (1876-1901): Historical Context
- 1877, Queen Victoria, Empress of INdia
- British imperial self-confidence
- politics of empire, race, and nation were signs of weakness
- The Boer War, colonial conflict between British and Dutch settlers in South Africa
- increasing fear of working class mob
- spirit of conservatism
Brit Lit 2: Late Victorian Literature: Literary Elements
- social analysis, resurgent socialism, feminism, liberal values
- homosexual subculture
- crumbling institutions such as family and marriage
- downward spiral of human condition
- emergence of aestheticism: art represents a refusal or inability to engage with reality
Late Victorian Writers and Works: Walter Besant
- slum novelist, wrote about class, education, unprivileged
- All Sorts and Conditions of Men
Late Victorian Writers and Works: George Gissing
- social pessimism
- Workers in the Dawn
- The Odd Women: novel about single women
Late Victorian Writers and Works: Thomas Hardy
- romantic, impractical, and disorganized characters
- powerless and defeated individuals
- sense of alienation
- Far from the Madding Crowd, The Return of the Native: emphasize failure of relationships
Late Victorian Writers and Works: Rudyard Kipling
- coherent and positive vision of the world
- Many Inventions: he proposed that there is a set of values relevant to all ranks of people
Late Victorian Writers and Works: George Bernard Shaw
- playwright
- social hypocrisy
- commitment to socialism
- The Philanderer, Heartbreak House, Widowers' Houses
Late Victorian Writers and Works: Robert Louis Stevenson
- Treasure Island
- Doctor Jekyll and Mr. Hyde: irrational factors in mind and rational identity
Late Victorian Writers and Works: Oscar Wilde
- playwright and novelist
- characters that play a role in society
- disintegration of values
- The Picture of Dorian Gray: aestheticism, portrait fades while hero himself retains youthful beauty
Brit Lit 2: The Twentieth Century : Historical Context
- science, technology, social welfare
- upheaval, war, poverty
- World War I
- Britain lost its dominance in the political arena to the US and Soviet Union
- World War II, Winston Churchill's inspiring leadership
Brit Lit 2: The Twentieth Century: Literary Elements
- portray anxiety of their changing society
- photography and film
- modernism, shifting perspectives
- existentialism: absurd world where meaning was irrelevant and could only be found in the self
- Existential nihilism: life is meaningless
- release of India and Hong Kong: questioning colonial policies
- postmodernism in 1970s: lack of social unity, questions about gender, sexuality, race, nationality, class, and power, deconstruction in literature
Twentieth Century Writers and Works: Kingsley Amis
- Lucky Jim: "angry young man" perspective
Twentieth Century Writers and Works: W. H. Auden
- discovered by T.S. Eliot
- Poems, The Orators, Look Stranger!
Twentieth Century Writers and Works: Samuel Beckett
- Waiting for Godot
- existential
Twentieth Century Writers and Works: The Bloomsbury Group
- intellectual group headed by Virginia Woolf
- economist John Maynard Keynes a member
- sexuality, pacifism, feminism
Twentieth Century Writers and Works: Anthony Burgess
- A Clockwork Orange: violent authoritarianism
Twentieth Century Writers and Works: A.S. Byatt
- The Virgin in the Garden, Still Life, Babel Tower, A Whistling Woman: quartet about a young female intellectual
Twentieth Century Writers and Works: Arthur C. Clarke
- real science
- "The Sentinel"
Twentieth Century Writers and Works: E.M. Forster
- compliance with social conventions
- A Room with a View
Twentieth Century Writers and Works: William Golding
- Lord of the Flies
- survival of the fittest
Twentieth Century Writers and Works: Graham Greene
- social angst
- The Power and the Glory
Twentieth Century Writers and Works: Seamus Heaney
- raw political power of words
Twentieth Century Writers and Works: Aldous Huxley
- Brave New World
- science fiction story that warned against the overwhelming powers of technology
Twentieth Century Writers and Works: James Joyce
- Ulysess
- stream of consciousness
Twentieth Century Writers and Works: D.H. Lawrence
- obscenity charges
- The Rainbow, Lady Chatterley's Lover
Twentieth Century Writers and Works: V.S. Naipaul
- Indian- Trinidadian British writer
- In a Free State, A House for Mr. Biswas
Twentieth Century Writers and Works: George Orwell
- social criticism
- 1984, Animal Farm
Twentieth Century Writers and Works: Sir Ahmed Salman Rushdie
- British Indian novelist
- magical realism with historical fiction
- relationship between Eastern and Western worlds
- The Satanic Verses
Twentieth Century Writers and Works: William Butler Yeats
- The Second Coming
- rapid technology collides with human and social values
- The Tower
Literature from the Ancient World the 15th Century: Ancient Greece: Historical Context
- 1000 BC, fires had destroyed the palaces, art, skills, and language of Myceneans: dark age of Greece
- Greeks establish city-states
- Athens and Sparta
- Athens becomes an empire, defeated in Peloponnesian War
- 385 BC, Plato established the Academy
- 753 BC, founding of Rome
- Rome ruled by dictators such as Julius Caesar
Literature from the Ancient World the 15th Century: Ancient Greece: Literary Elements
- Greek comedy and tragedy developed from choral performances
- Homer first major poet who developed an intricate metrical system
- literature incorporated dialectic, which is critical inquiry used to determine the plausibility of widely held doctrines: Socrates and Plato
Ancient Greek Writers and Works
- Aeschylus: The Persian, Prometheus Bound
- Aristophanes
- Aristotle: Poetics, first systematic work of Western literary criticism
- Euripides: Cyclops
- Homer: Symposium
- Sappho: first author to write in first person
- Socrates: search for meaning of "self"
- Sophocles: Oedipus the King
Literature from the Ancient World the 15th Century: Ancient Roman Literature: Historical Context and Literary Elements
- Christianity the official religion of Roman Empire
- strong divisions of social class
- four languages: classical Hebrew, Aramaic, Greek, Latin
- themes of heroism, imitating Greek epics
- Hebrew literature addressed the personal, inner, and relational God
Ancient Roman Writers and Works
- Virgil: Aenid: national epic
- Ovid: Metamorphoses
- The Four Gospels of the LIfe and Sayings of Jesus and the Acts of the Apostles
- final canon of the New Testament of the Bible
Literature from the Ancient World the 15th Century: The Middle Ages: Historical Context and Literary Elements
- Greece and Rome have contact with Germanic tribes from the north, Christians from Palestine, Muslims from the Arabian peninsula and northern Africa
- national literatures in the vernacular
- archetypal characters that sought to better understand themselves and their destinies
Middle Ages Writers and Works: Dante Alighieri
- The Divine Comedy
- medieval mind in European imaginative literature
- Hell (Inferno), Purgatory, Paradise
- descent through nine circle of hell
Literature from the Ancient World the 15th Century: African Literature: Historical Context and Literary Elements
- 200-350: spread of Christianity in North Africa
- 600-1000: spread of Islam into East and West Africa
- rise of West African savanna empires
- oral tradition
- folktale, legend, myth, poetry
African Writers and Works: The Epic of Son-Jara
- political epic focused on the rivalry of two brothers for succession to their father's throne
Literature from the Ancient World the 15th Century: Poetry and Thought in Early China: Historical Context and Literary Elements
- Shang dynasty
- great migration from the west leading to the Zhou dynasty
- Confucius: connection between idealized history and social history
- Taoism: focus on the individual
- Han dynasty, China becomes an official Confucian state
- Works reflected Confucian ideals, government, morality, the correctness of social relationships, justice, sincerity
- three jewels of the Tao: compassion, moderation, humility
- form of song
Early Chinese Writers and Works
- The Book of Documents: early Zhou period
- Classic of Poetry: lyric poetry
- The Book of Change: future directions of the universe
- Analects: ethical thought idealizing Zhou traditions
- Chuang Tzu: philosophical meditations based on Taoism
- Laozi tzu: manuscript with interpretations of sayings, great and illusive wisdom
- Historical Records: comprehensive history of the lives of ruling families and dynasties in China
Literature from the Ancient World the 15th Century: China's Middle Period: Historical Context and Literary Elements
- China was divided into three regional states
- crumbling rule of the Han dynasty
- The Tang dynasty supplants the Sui in 618, expanding political, economic, cultural, and military realms
- 1000 to 1100 marked the development of printing
- Confucianism declined, Taoism and Buddhism increased
- understanding the psyche, spiritual enlightenment, natural world
- development of printing caused an increased awareness of literary traditions and classical literature
China's Middle Period Works and Writers: Li Po
- greatest Tang poet
- playfulness, hyperbole, fantasy
- human experience of nature and friendship
Literature from the Ancient World the 15th Century: Indian Lit 3000 BC to AD 100: Historical Context and Literary Elements
- extreme diversity in written and oral tradition
- Hinduism: moral and spiritual conquest is superior to conquest by sword
- Dharma: principle of conduct that preserves social, moral, and cosmic integrity of universe
- Buddhism: creatures can be freed from cycle of suffering
Indian Writers and Works: The Vedas
- scriptures of Hinduism
- mantras, sacred utterances
Indian Writers and Works: The Upanisads
- mystical and philosophical mediations
Indian Writers and Works: Ramayana and Mahabharatar
- epic poems
- core values of Hinduism
- mythic tone and historical narrative
- emphasize dharma
Indian Writers and Works: Jakata
- Buddhist tale collection
- enlightenment reached by detaching oneself from desire and focusing on the wellbeing of others
Islamic Literature: Historical Context and Literary Elements
- 570, Muhammad born, tribe of Mecca
- 610-632, Koran produced, written in Arabic
- God's final revelation to humanity through Muhammad
- written in prose
- no single narrative running through
Japanese Literature: Historical Context and Literary Elements
- Chinese the official language
- men had a great deal of sexual freedom, women's identities constructed by men's recognition of them
Early Japanese Writers and Works: Murasaki Shikibu
- The Tale of Gengi, the first great Japanese prose novel
- life and love of a prince and his descendants
Golden Age of Japan: Historical Context
- Japan engaged in the Gempei wars
- Kamakura period, the samurai emerged
- late 1200s, Marco Polo
- 15th century, rise of Zen Buddhism and the arrival of the Portuguese, who brought firearms and Christianity
- late 1500s, printing press
- long standing Japanese ideal that privileges societal needs over the individual
- Buddhism offered the hope of escape
Golden Age of Japan: Literary Elements
- haiku
- emergence of linked poetry, quick and easy movement from one topic to another without repeated phrases
Golden Age Japanese Writers and Works: Matsuo Basho
- master of brief & clear haiku
- aspired to reflect his real environment and emotions in his hokku
Golden Age Japanese Writers and Works: Tale of the Heike
- account of Gempei wars
Golden Age Japanese Writers and Works: Yoshida Kenko
- Essays in Idleness
Golden Age Japanese Writers and Works: Shinkei
- Murmured Conversations
- principles of linked poetry
Golden Age Japanese Writers and Works: Sogi, Shohaku, Socho
- Three Poets at Minase
- epitomizes linked poetry tradition
World Literature from the 15th Century to Present: The Renaissance: Europe: Historical Context
- England declared war on France in 1549 and defeated the Spanish Armada in 1588
- Louis XIV became King of France in 1643, Charles I beheaded in 1649, leaving Oliver Cromwell to rule England
- rebirth of ancient culture
- compass, printing press, and gun
- strongly affirmed awareness of the intellectual and physical virtues of humankind and the individual's place in creation
World Literature from the 15th Century to Present: The Renaissance: Europe: Literary Elements
- Characters have more autonomy and more fully realized personalities
- harmonious and memorable, spectacular effects
- philosophical and imaginative
World Literature from the 15th Century to Present: The Enlightenment: Europe: Historical Context
- age of rationality
- good of the group over good of the individual
- late 1600s, Russian czar Peter the Great vowed to westernize Russia
- 100,000 slaves per year
- 1799, Napoleon Bonaparte became the first consul of France
World Literature from the 15th Century to Present: The Enlightenment: Europe: Literary Elements
- dramatized conflict between reason and passion
- writers assumed the superior importance of the social group and of shared opinion
- offered comfort to those aware of flaws in actual social arrangements
- conventions of 18th century society
- inform the way people really talked in social circles
Enlightenment Writers and Works: Miguel de Cervantes
- Spanish dramatist, poet, and author
- Don Quixote de la Mancha
- satirized tales of chivalry
- humankind was inherently good, it was prone to mischief
Enlightenment Writers and Works: Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz
- nun and Mexican poet
- defended women's right to be treated as a human being
Enlightenment Writers and Works: Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
- German poet, dramatist, novelist, autobiographer, lawyer, diplomat, scientific researcher
- Faust, imagination versus social obligation, limitations of desire
Enlightenment Writers and Works: Jean Baptiste Poquelin Moliere
- comedic playwright
- pointing fun at ruling and rich aristocrats
Enlightenment Writers and Works: Michel de Montaigne
- French Renaissance thinker
- style was light and simple
- argues against rationalization of God and for belief based on faith
Enlightenment Writers and Works: Jean Racine
- three major dramatists of the period
- Phaedra
Enlightenment Writers and Works: Francois de la Rochefoucauld
- French classical writer
- focus on morality
- Reflections
Enlightenment Writers and Works: Jean Jacques Rousseau
- destructive nature of institutions, gradual corruption of humankind
- importance of nature
- Confessions: men and boys try to express natural impulses but are frustrated by society's demands
World Literature from the 15th Century to Present: The Americas: Historical Context and Literary Elements
- 1519, Hernando Cortez arrived in the Aztec capital
- Francisco Pizarro conquered Peruvian Incas in 1533
- three genres of Mesoamerican literature emerged: song, narrative, oratory
- literary themes addressed supernatural power, problems of humanity versus nature, social obligation, development of individual
World Literature from the 15th Century to Present: China: Historical Context
- Mongols conquered the southern Sung dynasty in 1279
- capital moved to Peking
- Ming dynasty, period of radical individualism, subjectivism, questioning of authority and tradition
- Literary Inquisition, 1736 and 1794, censorship
- British merchants dominated the opium trade, draining away Chinese silver and creating social problems
- Christian missionaries
World Literature from the 15th Century to Present: China: Literary Elements
- Classical literature diminished as an important part of social life
- vernacular expressed sex, violence, satire, humor
- rise of bourgeoisie in great cities spread literacy to urban areas
- murder mysteries, stories of bandits, fantasy
Chinese Writers and Works: Cao Xueqin
- Qing Dynasty Chinese writer
- "Dream of the Red Chamber" (AKA The Story of the Stone): semi-autobiographical, mirroring the rise and decay of his own family and, by extension, of the Qing Dynasty
- huge cast of characters and psychological scope, and precise, detailed observation of life and social structures typical of 18th-century Chinese aristocracy
- - One of the Four Great Classical Chinese Novels (along with Water Margin, Journey to the West, & Romance of the Three Kingdoms)
Chinese Writers and Works: Luo Guanzhong
- "Romance of the Three Kingdoms": a historical novel set amidst the turbulent years near the end of the Han Dynasty
- story (part historical, part legend, and part myth) chronicles the lives of feudal lords and their retainers, who tried to replace the dwindling Han Dynasty or restore it.
- One of the Four Great Classical Chinese Novels (along with Water Margin, Journey to the West, & Dream of the Red Chamber)
Chinese Writers and Works: Wu Ch'eng-en
- "Journey to the West": China to India journey - One of the Four Great Classical Chinese Novels (along with Water Margin, Romance of the Three Kingdoms, & Dream of the Red Chamber)
- also wrote "Monkey", journey of a T'ang Buddhist monk
Chinese Writers and Works: Chin P'ing Mei
- "Golden Lotus": satirical novel about the manners of a corrupt sensualist
Chinese Writers and Works: K'ung Shang-jen
- Chinese playwright & poet
- "The Little Lute": ninth-century girl lute player in the court orchestra of the T'ang emperors and the warring political factions that attempt to exploit her for self-serving ends.
- "The Peach Blossom Fan": about the Manchu conquest of Ming China
- intricate and sprawling affairs, numerous characters, and multiple story lines
Chinese Writers and Works: Li Yu
- Chinese playwright, novelist and publisher during late-Ming & early-Qing dynasties.
- "Fēngzhēng wù" ("Errors caused by the Kite") is a favorite of the Chinese Kun opera stage
- Monkey
Chinese Writers and Works: T'ang Hsien-tsu
- major dramatist
- major plays "Four Dreams": named because of the - - masterpiece "The Mudan Ting" (The Peony Pavilion)
World Literature from the 15th Century to Present: Ottoman Empire: Historical Context and LIterary Elements
- Ottoman state was the last of the great Muslim empires
- Mehmed the first Ottoman sultan to success Muslim caliphs
- waged war against European rivals during 16th and 17th centuries
- European military weakened empire
Ottoman Empire Writers and Works: Evliya Celebi
- The Book of Travels
- panoramic view of the Ottoman empire
- many of the descriptions exaggerated manner or were plainly inventive fiction or 3rd-source misinterpretation
- notes are widely accepted as a useful guide to the cultural aspects and lifestyle of 17th-century Ottoman Empire.
World Literature from the 15th Century to Present: India: Historical Context and Literary Elements
- British rule in India
- Hindu religious and social reform
- English education for Indians
- Indian National Congress devoted to Indian representation in the British colonial government of India
- Ghazal, lyric genre
- poetry was introspective, reflective, public, performed, often about love
Indian Writers and Works: Bankim Chandra Chatterjee
- a Bengali writer, poet and journalist
- composer of India's national song "Vande Mataram"
- humorous sketches are best known works other than his novels; most famous "Kamalakanter Daptar"
- 1st major publication "Kapalkundala"
- "Anandamath": allegorical novel of resistance to colonial rule
Indian Writers and Works: Michael Madhusudan Dutta
- popular 19th-century Bengali poet and dramatist
- famous work "Meghnad Bodh Kavya": a tragic epic consisting of nine cantos and is exceptional in style and content
- wrote poems about the sorrows and afflictions of love as spoken by women
Indian Writers and Works: Mirza Asadulla Khan Ghalib
- a classical Urdu and Persian poet
- ghazal lyric poems
- wrote about philosophy & travails and the mysteries of life
Indian Writers and Works: Henry David Thoreau
- was influenced by the Bhagavad Gita
World Literature from the 15th Century to Present: Japan: Historical Context and Literary Elements
- 1600 to 1868 considered the Edo period
- shoguns proclaimed a policy of national isolation, expelling the Portuguese, outlawing Christianity, forbidding foreign travel
- enterprising merchants, artisans, and laborers grow in numbers due to economic opportunity
- new urban culture
- Puns and parodies
- depicted city life
- new tradesmen class demanded realism, captured bourgeoisie life
Japanese Writers and Works: Ueda Akinari
- supernatural stories
- Tales of Moonlight and Rain
Japanese Writers and Works: Matsuo Basho
- haiku poet
- The Narrow Road of the Inferior
- travel memoir written in verse
Japanese Writers and Works: Takeda Izumo II
- The Treasury of Loyal Retainers
- a play, samurai who avenge their master's death
Japanese Writers and Works: Chikamatsu Monzaemon
- The Love Suicides at Amijima
- tragedy of fatal love
Japanese Writers and Works: Ihara Saikaku
- comic realist
- The Life of a Sensuous Man
World Literature from the 15th Century to Present: The Modern World: Historical Context
- WWI and WWII
- truly global world
- advances in technology, transformations of modern states, rapid spread of international corporations
- interconnectedness rather than isolation
- Western countries became models
- colonial governments promised advances in literacy and standard of living
- suppressing indigenous traditions
- Industrial Revolution
- Karl Marx's proposal of a scientific theory of world history
- Frederich Nietzsche focused on the individual not society, rejected nationalism, Christianity, faith in science, loyalty to the state
- WWI: reexamination of certainty, structures of knowledge, systems of belief, repositories of authority
- Post WWII: absurdity, existentialism
World Literature from the 15th Century to Present: The Modern World: Literary Elements
- Modernism
- rejected traditional authority and represented the change in attitudes and artistic strategy
- new use of language, knowledge
- stream of consciousness
- every writer after Freud considered psychological undercurrents of human behavior in their writing
- Post WWI: existentialism, theater of the absurd
- highly self conscious use of language in order to change the understanding of language
Modern Writers and Works: Guillaume Apollinaire
- French poet
- eliminating punctuation
- coined the word "surrealism"
- Les Mamelles de Tiresias
Modern Writers and Works: Thea Astley
- Australian novelist, short story writer
- The Slow Natives, The Well Dressed Explorer
- unsentimental and funny
- satirically examined morally or intellectually isolated individuals
Modern Writers and Works: Pio Baroja
- La Raza
Agonias de Nuetsro Tiempo Lucha por la Vida: dirty living conditions, prostitutes, criminals, ignorance of mankind
- El Arbol de la Ciencia: shortcomings of the medical field, poverty and filth in Spain
Modern Writers and Works: Samuel Beckett
- Irish writer, dramatist, poet
- bleak view of the world
- minimalist
- Waiting for Godot
- absurdist
Modern Writers and Works: Jorge Luis Borges
- Argentinian
- imaginative and enigmatic stories, Ficciones
Modern Writers and Works: Albert Camus
- French existentialist
- anxiety expressed by humankind living in a century of fear
- absurdity of man's existence
- man must make the most of his life
- The Wrong Side and the Right Side, Nuptials, The Stranger, The Rebel
Modern Writers and Works: Anton Chekhov
- The Bear: creditor hounds a young widow, she challenges him to a duel, he proposes
- The Wedding: groom's plans to invite a general to his wedding, general turns out to be retired and low ranking
Modern Writers and Works: Fyodor Dostoevsky
- Russian novelist
- Crime and Punishment
- God vs. atheism, good vs. evil, freedom vs. tyranny, recognition of limits vs. fall of humanity
- conservative Russian nationalism
- hope for Russian Christianity
- narrative of confession
Modern Writers and Works: Miles Franklin
- Australian author and feminist
- My Brilliant Career: autobiography
- All That Swagger: WWI, Dennis Delacy and family migrate to New South Wales
- contributions of Irish immigrants to 20th century Australia
Modern Writers and Works: Eugene Ionesco
- Romanian playwright
- surrealism, naturalism, tragedy, comedy
- society has destroyed man
- The Rhinoceros, conformity
Modern Writers and Works: Franz Kafka
- novelist of German Jewish descent

- "The Trial, The Castle, Amerika": troubled individuals living horrible and depressing lives in a cold industrial world

- "The Metamorphosis": Gregor, a traveling salesman wakens as a beetle, unable to right himself or communicate with the outside world.
Modern Writers and Works: Federico Garcia Lorca
- Spanish poet, director, playwright
- El maleficio de la mariposa: absurd love between a cockroach and a butterfly
- three collections of poems
Modern Writers and Works: Octavio Paz Lozano
- Mexican writer, poet, diplomat
- Luna Silvestre
- modernist and surrealist
- Piedra de Sol
- connections between art, philosophy, politics, religion
Modern Writers and Works: Antonio Machado
- Spanish poet
- explored memory
- study of recurrent symbols, the lines between dream and reality, intersection of past and present
- Campos de Castilla: conditions in Spain, anticipated Spanish Civil War, 1936
Modern Writers and Works: Gabriel Garcia Marquez
- magical realism, magical events into realistic situations
- loneliness, solitude of love
- One Hundred Years of Solitude
- Love in the Time of Cholera
Modern Writers and Works: Ana Maria Matute
- Spanish author
- lyric and expressionist
- followed Spanish Civil War
- themes of loss of innocence, alienation, violence, misery
- Los Hijos Muertos
Modern Writers and Works: Vladimir Nabokov
- famous Russian novelist
- against anti-Semitism
- opposition to Bolshevik Revolution
- Lolita, a man's profound lust for a twelve year old girl
Modern Writers and Works: Pablo Neruda
- pen name of Chilean author, Neftali Ricardo Reyes Basoalto
- political activist
- senator for Chilean Communist Party
- Veinte Poemas de Amor y una Cancion
Modern Writers and Works: Luigi Pirandello
- Sicilian author
- Right You Are if You Think You Are
- Six Characters in Search of an Author
- death, insanity, old age
Modern Writers and Works: Marcel Proust
- French novelist and critic
- A la recherche du temps perdu (Remembrance of Things Past)
- vivid portrayal of France before and after WWI
- irrationality of human behavior and motivations, especially in relation in love
Modern Writers and Works: Rainer Maria Rilke
- one of Germany's greatest 20th century poets
- man vs. the unknown
- Sonnets to Orpheus
- Duino Elegies
- The Notebooks of Malte Laurids Brigge
Modern Writers and Works: Jean Paul Sartre
- French existentialist philosophy
- lack of God's in one's life
- free from all authority, find solidarity with others
- La Nausee, Le Mur
- loaded with symbolism
Modern Writers and Works: Kenneth Slessor
- Australian poet and journalist
- modernist influences
- Beach Burial: Australian soldiers who served in WWII
- Five Below: confronts death with despair
Modern Writers and Works: Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn
- Russian novelist, dramatist, historian
- Soviet Union's forced labor camp system
- realistic tradition
- flaws of East and West
- The Red Wheel: history of Russian revolutionary period
Modern Writers and Works: Leo Tolstoy
- count and public figure, gave up wealth to live the simple life of a Russian peasant
- War and Peace: historical novel about Napoleonic invasion of Russia
- Anna Karenina: novel of contemporary manners, adultery, suicide, ends with promise of salvation
Modern Writers and Works: Derek Walcott
- Saint Lucia
- In a Green Night: a collection of plays
- tension between Caribbean and European cultures
- Henri Christophe: A Chronicle: slave who becomes king of Haiti
Modern Writers and Works: Patrick White
- Australian author
- stream of consciousness, shifting narrative
- The Twyborn Affair: challenge the concept of identity, transmigration of soul through three distinct identities
Modern Writers and Works: Judith Wright
- clear and lucid
- explore the experiences of Australia's indigenous people
- collections of poetry include The Moving Image, Woman to Man, Birds: Poems
Modern Writers and Works: Mikhail Zoshchenko
- foremost Russian satirist
- simplified deadpan style of writing
- accessible to the people
Modern African Writers and Works:
- Nigerian novelist
- Things Fall Apart
- grave impact of colonization
Modern African Writers and Works: Doris Lessing
- Zimbabwean British writer
- The Grass is Singing, The Golden Notebook
- horror and savagery of apartheid and nuclear war
Modern African Writers and Works: Wole Soyinka
- Nigerian writer
- mythology of his own tribe- the Yoruba, Ogun the god of iron and war
- The Swamp Dwellers and The Lion and the Jewel
Modern African Writers and Works: Ngugi wa Thiong'o
- Kenyan author
- Weep Not, Child
- imprisoned for the strong political message of his play I Will Marry When I Want
Modern Chinese Writers and Works: Bing Xin
- finest and most tender detail
- mother love and innocence
- strong individualism
- Orange-peel Lamp, We Have No Winter, Cherry Blossoms, Friendship
- bright and optimistic tone
Modern Chinese Writers and Works: Lao She
- Peking dialect
- Camel Xiangzi, Tea House
- classes in old China
- Crescent Moon depicts the miserable life of a mother and daughter and their deterioration into prostitution
Modern Chinese Writers and Works: Lin Yutang
- essayist and novelist
- Moment in Peking, informal but polished
- popularized classical Chinese literature in the West
- At the behest of Pearl Buck, My Country and My People, The Importance of Living
Modern Chinese Writers and Works: Lu Xun
- father of modern Chinese literature
- A Madman's Diary
- retold old Chinese stories from his own perspective
Modern Chinese Writers and Works: Xu Zhimo
- Chinese lyric poet
- romanticized love, freedom, beauty
- inspired by English romantic poetry of Keats and Shelley
Modern Indian Writers and Works: Mohandas K. Gandhi
- major political and spiritual leader of India
- mass civil disobedience and total nonviolence
- autobiography, My Experiments With Truth
Modern Indian Writers and Works: Amitav Ghosh
- Calcutta, India
- anthropological field work in Egypt
- In an Antique Land, The Circle of Reason, The Shadow Lines
Modern Indian Writers and Works: Qurrat-ul-Ain Haider
- novelist and short story writer
- Aag Ka Darya (Ring of Fire)
Modern Indian Writers and Works: R.K. Narayan
- best known Indian novelist
- compared to Faulkner, energy of ordinary life
- Swami and Friends
- The English Teacher
- rural village life in India
Modern Indian Writers and Works: Sir Ahmed Salman Rushdie
- British Indian novelist and essayist
- magical realism mixed with historical fiction
- Midnight's Children: special child born on the day India gained its independence
- Shame: political turmoil in Pakistan
- The Satanic Verses: highly controversial
- interchange of though between Eastern and Western world
Modern Indian Writers and Works: Rabindranath Tagore
- Bengali poet
- visual art, mysticism, music
- ordinary people, harmonious language
- humanistic, compassion for poor
- Saddhana, The Realization of Life, The Crescent Moon
Modern Indian Writers and Works: Nirmal Verma
- Hindi novelist and activist
- Nayi Kahani: new short story literary movement
- best known short story: Parinade
- rich in symbolism with a style that is deceptively simple
Modern Japanese Writers and Works: Oe Kenzaburo
- brain damaged father
- intertwines poetry and prose, realism and myth
- isolation from outside world
- Kojinteki na Taiken (A Personal Matter)
Modern Japanese Writers and Works: Makoto Ooka
- renshi, type of linked poetry
- contemporary free verse
Modern Japanese Writers and Works: Kawabata Yasunari
- Tade-kuu Mushi (Some Prefer Nettles)
- Tokyo and Osaka, symbols of conflict between modern and traditional thought in his country
Modern Japanese Writers and Works: Banana Yoshimoto
- contemporary Japanese author
- harsh or brutally honest, insights into modern Japanese society
- novella titled Kitchen, coming of age tale that deals with the topics of loneliness, death, and a girl who loves kitchens
Modern Japanese Writers and Works: Mishima Yukio
- kabuki plays (highly stylized Japanese dance-dramas)
- homosexual, love for the human body
- Kamen no Kokuhaku (Confessions of a Mask)
- committed ritual suicide with other members of his fanatical army
Modern Middle Eastern Writers and Works: Yehuda Amichai
- Hebrew poet
- fighting in WWII and the Israeli war of independence
- collection of poetry, Achshav Uve-Yamim HaAharim (Now and in Other Days)
- poetry should reflect contemporary issues
- mixed classical Hebrew, postmodern colloquialisms, newly coined idioms, slang expressions
Modern Middle Eastern Writers and Works: Naguib Mahfouz
- existentialism
- Cairo Trilogy
- urban life in the Arab world
Modern Middle Eastern Writers and Works: Amos Oz
- turbulent history of Jerusalem
- end ambivalence
- channel present emotions into future works
- be open to dialogue
- human nature in all of its variety and frailty
- A Tale of Love and Darkness, A Perfect Peace To Know a Woman
Modern Middle Eastern Writers and Works: Orhan Pamuk
- contemporary Turkish novelist
- Beyaz Kale (White Castle): mystery story set in early Renaissance
Modern Middle Eastern Writers and Works: Marjane Satrapi
- Iranian and French graphic novelist, illustrator, animated film director, children's book author
- Persepolis I and Persepolis II
Modern Middle Eastern Writers and Works: Abraham B. Yehoshua
- Israeli author
- Five Seasons: main character Molkho's wife dies and the story traces Molho's fantasies season by season as he struggles with his new freedom
Characteristics of Fiction
- Character: protagonist, antagonist
- Characterization: physical, emotional and social characteristics, thoughts, feelings, dreams, ethics, dialogue
- Round and flat characters
- Dynamic and Static characters
- Plot: Intro, rising action, climax, falling action, denouement
- Setting: Place, Social conditions, time, weather, mood
- Theme
Types of Fiction
- novel
- short story, novelette, novella
- allegory: extended metaphor, social, religious, or political significance, characters personify abstract ideas
- fable: moral lesson, talking animals
- Folk legend: fact and fiction, Pecos Bill, Paul Bunyan
- myth: traditional story that explains what humankind cannot understand
- romance: improbable events, extraordinary characters: Don Quixote
- modern fantasy
- science fiction
- modern realistic fiction
- historical fiction
- mystery fiction
Types of Nonfiction
- Autobiography
- Biography
- Essay
- Informational books
- memoir: objective and anecdotal
- newspaper accounts
Types of Drama
- Serious drama or tragedy: mortality
- anagnorisis: self recognition
- catharsis: purge of emotion
- hamartia: tragic flaw
- hubris: excessive pride
- peripeteia: reversal of fortune
- comic drama or comedy: outrageous idea
- Farce: clowning and slapstick humor
- melodrama: medieval world, good and evil
- tragicomedy: loneliness and alienation
Types of Poetry
- concrete poetry: typographical arrangement of words, convey meaning of poem
- dramatic poetry: monologue or dialogue
- epic poem: long narrative poem
- lyric poetry: short poem presented in the voice of a single speaker
- ballad: stanza of four lines
- blank verse: unrhymed iambic pentameter, Shakespeare
- couplet
- heroic couplet: contains a complete thought
- elegy: laments loss of a person who has died
- limerick: five line stanza, extemporaneous nonsense verse
- ottava rima: eight line stanza
- sonnet: 14 iambic pentameter lines
Criteria for Evaluating Poetic Works
- pattern of the sound and rhythm
- visible shape or structure
- rhyme
- imperfect rhyme
Literary Devices: Alliteration, Analogy, Anaphora, Anastrophe, Apostrophe
- repetition of initial sounds
- reference to a person, event, or place
- analogy: comparison
- anaphora: deliberate repetition of words or phrases
- anastrophe: inversion of normal order of words
- apostrophe: direct address to absent or deceased person
Literary Devices: Archetype, Assonance, Bathos, Blank Verse, Cacophony
- recurring character, symbol, plot
- repetition of vowel sounds
- abrupt appearance of a trite phrase in the midst of a lofty speech
- unrhymed poetry in iambic pentameter
- harsh or disconcerting sounds
Literary Devices: Catachresis, Chiasmus, Connotation, Consonance, Denotation
- two things that are completely dissimilar mashed together
- second part syntactically balanced against first
- emotional or cultural associations
- repetition of consonance sounds
- strict dictionary meaning of a word
Literary Devices: Epigram, Euphemism, Euphony, Foreshadowing, Free Verse
- short witty saying
- less blunt way of declaring an idea
- soothing or pleasant sounds
- hints or clues
- no fixed pattern
Literary Devices: Hyperbole, Imagery, Inference, Verbal Irony, Dramatic Irony, Situational Irony
- exaggeration
- language that evokes the senses
- reasonable conclusion
- author says one thing and means another
- audience knows something a character does not
- discrepancy between expected and actual result
Literary Devices: Malapropism, Metonymy, Metaphor, Mood, Onomatopoeia
- humorous misusing of a word
- substituting one word for another
- comparison
- general atmosphere
- imitates sound it represents
Literary Devices: Oxymoron, Paradox, Parallelism, Parody, Pathos
- two contradictory words
- statement that appears to be contradictory
- use of phrases that are similar in structure or meaning
- form of satire that humorously imitates
- feelings of pity, sympathy, tenderness, sorrow
Literary Devices: Personification, Point of view, Rhythm, Feet
- attribution of human qualities to animals
- omniscient (minds of all characters), limited (mind of one character), objective (only what can be seen)
- arrangement of stressed and unstressed syllables
- unit of measure: combination of iamb and trochee
Stress Patterns in Poetry: Anapest, Dactyl, Iamb, Spondee, Trochee
- Anapest: two unstressed, one stressed
- Dactyl: one stressed, two unstressed
- Iamb: one unstressed, one stressed
- Spondee: two unstressed
- Trochee: one stressed, one unstressed
Literary Devices: Satire, Simile, Style, Symbolism
- humorous exposure of human weakness
- comparison
- structure, word arrangement, tone, imagery
- use of an object or action to evoke another meaning
Literary Devices: Synecdoche, Synethsesia, Theme, Tone, Voice
- use of a part to represent the whole
- conflation of senses (sounds have color)
- underlying meaning of literary work
- attitude
- author's style
Literary Theory and Criticism: Classical Criticism
- Aristotle and Plato establish parameters of critical study
- Plato banned poetry because it was 3 times removed from truth, imitated imitation, and appealed to our lower nature.
- Aristotle and Horace believed poetry must be both pleasing and morally and intellectually useful
Literary Theory and Criticism: Neoplatonic Criticism
- credited to Plotinus (Egyptian philosopher)
- literature a direct expression of eternal essences
- access to higher spiritual realms and to the divine
- trace connections between literal & figurative language in the reading of scripture
Literary Theory and Criticism: Medieval Criticism
-credited to St Thomas Aquinas & Dante Alighieri
- refined neoplatonism
- meaning not only encompasses literal levels but also allegorical, moral, anagogical, mystical levels
- emphasize beauty, order & harmony of God's creation
- hierarchy of knowledge leading to the divine
Literary Theory and Criticism: Renaissance Criticism
- humanistic and secular view
- revisiting classical learning, the notions of imitations, classification of genres, and vernacular as a medium of poetic expression
Literary Theory and Criticism: Neoclassic Criticism
-credited to Dr Samuel Johnson, Alexander Pope, and John Dryden
- return to the classical virtues such as rationality, moderation, balance, decorum, harmony of form and content, dramatic unities of time and place and action
Literary Theory and Criticism: Romantic Criticism
- credited to Immanuel Kant
- imagination more comprehensive than reason
Literary Theory and Criticism: Realistic Criticism or Realism
- described life, particularly setting, with objectivity, detail, rich example
- mostly associated with 19th century France
- also noted in Eliot's "Middlemarch", Poe's "The Fall of the House of Usher", and Cisneros' "The House on Mango Street"
Literary Theory and Criticism: Naturalism
- developing characterization using a more scientific approach
- humankind as products of heredity, instinct, environment
Classical Literary Criticism: Formalism
- AKA "New Criticism"
- roots in classical literary criticism
- form is meaning
- emphasizes unity of all parts to create a whole
- all elements, literary and syntactical, fit together to provide understanding
- content not separated from form but intricately linked to create meaning
- analysis attends to the meaning and interactions of words, figures of speech, symbols, complexity, coherence
- objective criticism
- meaning derived from the text, regardless of historical context and author
- focused reading and re-reading will yield ONE BEST MEANING of a text sustained through textual evidence
Classical Literary Criticism: Historicism
- emerged towards the end of the 18th century
- AKA "Genetic Criticism"
- form and content are informed by specific historical circumstances and specific situation in time and place
- only someone who is an expert in the particular period during which the text was written can truly understand these events, assumptions, values, beliefs
- particular useful when analyzing texts that reflect the social, political, and economic context of the time (like some Charles Dickens stories)
Classical Literary Criticism: New Historicism or Cultural Criticism
- emerged in the 1980s
- influenced by Michel Foucault
- text as discourse situated within complex cultural, religious, political, economic, and aesthetic discourses, which shape the literature and are shaped by the literature
- readers must interrogate and identify the historical causes of the text and the historical effects or consequences as well
Classical Literary Criticism: Reader Response Criticism
- just as texts have authors, they also have audiences
- reading not an interpretation but a transaction between a reader and the text
- reader interprets text based on his or her personal experiences, values, beliefs, and emotions; the reader reads to gain insight into hie or her own life
- aesthetic stance addresses the purpose of experiencing the text
-the text has meaning because the reader makes meaning from the text by bringing personal experiences etc
- range of reader responses will vary because each reader is unique
-particular useful in elementary & middle school because it makes the reader more relevant to the text; if applied to YA lit, it invites reader to interact because text's theme addresses adolescent feelings (NOTE TO SELF: this is what helps make Shakespeare and other classical texts relevant to teens today)
Classical Literary Criticism: Mimetic Criticism
- reality serves as the context
- great literature reveals particular truths in that it mimics reality
- construct meaning within a larger framework or reality
- Marxism, feminism, psychological critique all fall within this broader category of criticism because it asserts a specific understanding of reality to inform interpretation
Classical Literary Criticism: Marxist Criticism
- roots in Karl Marx & Friedrich Engels
- posing social questions that address social context and issues of power
- Who has power, money, social capital?
- text is a social construction informed by conscious political doctrines and ideologies
- interpreting a text means identifying how issues of power, class, and ideology interact
- focuses on relationships between individuals, their roles and vocations in society, class systems, governments, & choice
- good for text like Fahrenheit 451, Of Mice & Men, & Animal Farm which clearly establish relationships of power between characters, classes, and political bureaucracies
Classical Literary Criticism: Feminism
- based on cultural and economic limitations in a patriarchal society that have prevented women from realizing their potential and acquiring power
- focuses on the relationships between genders and examines the patterns of thought, behavior, values, and power relations between sexes.
Classical Literary Criticism: Psychological Criticism
- derived from work of Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung
- argues characters that are believable are those that are most realistic
- interested in character as a psychological being
Classical Literary Criticism: Intertextual Criticism
- understanding the literary conventions and linguistic constructions inherent in all literature enables us to interpret text; interpreting text is by analogy
-four principles to analyze: convention, genre, archetype, and a combination of the three
- Example: Understanding Beowulf, the Iliad, and the Odyssey can help us understand more contemporary epics
Classical Literary Criticism: Structuralism
- study of signs or symbols
- identifying binary oppositions include hot/cold, old/new, regression/progression which can then be used to construct meaning
- focuses on the universal qualities of literature
Classical Literary Criticism: Poststructural Criticism
- assumes the most effective way to interpret a text is to deconstruct it
- assumes language is unstable and ambiguous and therefore contradictory, author is not in full control of what he or she writes, literature means nothing because language means nothing, and therefore, there is no way of knowing what the meaning of a story is
- requires reader to reflect deeply beyond surface of text
- break down or deconstruct the text rather than derive a coherent and unifying whole
- perceives text as not having a center or universal meaning, but an array of meanings; literature is cultural, political, and social
- Chinua Achebe's "Things Fall Apart" would be a good text to "deconstruct" because it delineates how meaning s cultural, political, social and gender related.
Structure and Development of the English Language: Linguistics
- science or study concerned with developing models of linguistic knowledge
- phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics
Structure and Development of the English Language: Linguistic Terms
- Base Word: dog, house
- compound word
- contraction
- etymology: word or history origin
- heteronyms: words that are spelled the same but differ in pronunciation and meaning
- root word
- syllabication?
- morphology: identification of structure of words
Structure and Development of the English Language: Types of Morphemes
- A morpheme is the smallest structural unit with meaning
- Free morphemes stand alone (ex. man, pizza, run, happy)
- Bound morphemes appear with other morphemes to form a lexeme (suffixes, prefixes) (ex. dancer + dance + er)
- Derivational morphemes add to a word to create another word (happy - happiness - unhappiness)
- Inflectional morphemes change a word's number, tense, or other characteristics to create a new word (ex. girl - girl+s = girls)
- Allmorphs: variants of the same morpheme
Structure and Development of the English Language: Linguistic Terms
-Phonology: use of sound to encode meaning in any spoken human language
- Phonetics: science of speech sounds
- Phonics
Phonics Patterns: Vowels
- Short vowels, long vowels
- Schwa: a type of reduce vowel, the third sound that most single-vowel spellings can produce
- closed syllables: single vowel followed by a consonant
- open syllables: vowel appears at the end of the syllable
- diphthongs: fuse two adjacent vowel sounds
- R controlled words: r follows a vowel, modifying that vowel's sound
- vowel digraphs: two letters used to represent the vowel sound
- Consonant-EL single vowel letter followed by a consonant and the letter e
Phonics Patterns: Consonants
- Consonant digraphs: two letters are used to represent a consonant phoneme
Syntax and Syntactical Features: Syntax, Generative grammar, syntactic terms
- study of the principles for constructing sentences
- language is a structure of the human mind and there are rules that can be used to produce or create any sentence, focuses on form of sentence, rather than how it functions as communication (Noam Chomsky)
- parts of speech
Syntax and Syntactical Features: Adjectives (Attributive, Predicative, Absolute, Substantive)
- attributed to the noun they modify (angry mob)
- linking mechanism (children are quiet)
- modify subject
- act as nouns
Syntax and Syntactical Features: Adverbs (of manner, comparative and superlative, conjunctive)
- answer the question "How?"
- degree
- join two clauses
Syntax and Syntactical Features: Appositive, Article (definite, indefinite, zero)
- noun or phrase that clarifies the subject, separate from the sentence by commas
- the, a or an, absence of an article
Syntax and Syntactical Features: Auxiliary verbs, Passive voice, Progressive aspect, perfect aspect, modal verbs, dummy auxiliary
- verbs that precede a main verb
- people were hurt
- I am packing
- She has lapsed
- can, could, shall, may might, would, will
- You do understand.
Syntax and Syntactical Features: Clauses (Noun, adjective, adverb)
- noun is replaced with a dependent clause
- dependent clauses that modify a noun
- dependent clauses that modify the entire main clause
Syntax and Syntactical Features: Comparative, Null Comparative, Complement, Compound Adjective
- used with than or as (as rough as)
- no conjunction (works better)
- clause needed in the predicate to complete its meaning
- well-maintained
Syntax and Syntactical Features: Compound noun (endocentric, exocentric, copulative, oppositional)
- backboard
- bittersweet
- rundown
- meatlover
Syntax and Syntactical Features: Conjunction (coordinating, correlative, subordinating)
- for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so
- both...and, either...or, neither...nor
- after, although, if, unless, so, that, because, therefore
Syntax and Syntactical Features: Dangling modifier, Declension, Expletive, Function words, Gender
- mistake: I saw the electronics store walking through the mall.
- change reflecting number, gender, or case
- necessary grammatically but contributes no meaning to sentence
- opposite of content words
- used in European languages
Syntax and Syntactical Features: gerund, measure words, collective nouns, direct objects, indirect objects
- verb ending with ing
- used with a number to express the count of an item
- refer to groups
- immediate recipients of verb
- secondary recipients of verb
Syntax and Syntactical Features: prepositional object, participle, phrasal verb
- object at the end of a prepositional phrase
- verb that functions independently as an adjective
- joining of a verb with a preposition
Syntax and Syntactical Features: Adjectival predicative, Nominal predicative, Present Perfect Tense, Pluperfect Tense
- adjective follows verb
- noun follows verb
- I have studied.
- I had studied
Syntax and Syntactical Features: Intransitive verbs, transitive verbs, ditransitive verbs
- only a subject
- subject and a direct object
- subject, direct object, indirect object
Semantics: Specific understanding, Functional understanding, Conceptual understanding, Polysemy
Semantics is the study or science of meaning in language.
- literal definition
- ability to use a word in writing or speech
- understand the word in context
- one word has many meanings
Semantics: Semantic shifts (amelioration, deterioration, expansion, restriction), euphemism
- ways meanings change.
- improvement or enhancement of a word's original meaning
- diminishing or lessening of a word's original meaning
- range of the word's meaning increases over time
- diminishing of a word's range
- substitution of a more agreeable word for one that is offensive
History of the English Language
- Speech developed between 100,000 to 20,000 BC.
- 5,000 to 3,000 BC, there was on common language, Proto-Indo-European (PIE)
- Germanic language by AD 0
- Jutes, Saxons, Angles brought their own Germanic dialects
- AD 600, Christian missionaries bring the Latin Alphabet: Old English
- West Saxon dialect becomes dominant: Middle English
- Latin and French become languages of power.
- End of 15th century, printing press: standardization of English
- Great vowel shift, new vocabulary, more access to books
- 19th and 20th centuries, Scientific and Industrial Revolutions brought technical vocabulary
- Dictionaries and grammars gained popularity.
- Language change inevitable
Define: Rhetoric
The art of using language or discourse. (Discourse is written and spoken language, used to convey meaning.)
Development of Modern Rhetoric: Plato
- developed philosophical rhetoric for interrogating the truth
- intent to influence humankind's soul
Development of Modern Rhetoric: Isocrates
- founded the first school of rhetoric in Athens
- probe practical problems
- defend causes that were good and honorable
Development of Modern Rhetoric: Aristotle
- complete theory of rhetoric called "The Rhetoric"
Development of Modern Rhetoric: Cicero
- used rhetoric to persuade and convince
- identified qualities of ideal orator
- specific style of oratory corresponded to a particular purpose
- Proving- plain and simple
- Pleasing- language of charm
- Persuading- vigorous and and rigorous
Development of Modern Rhetoric: Quintilian
- creating volumes of ancient rhetorical theory
- good orators had to be good men or they would not be able to speak eloquently
Development of Modern Rhetoric: St. Augustine of Hippo
- used rhetoric to evangelize
- eloquent rhetoric converted pagans to Christianity more effectively than simple rhetoric
Classical Rhetoric (Deliberative, Judicial, Epideictic)
- Deliberative: convince, persuade, dissuade
- Judicial: accuse, defend, exonerate
- Epideictic: celebrate, commend, commemorate
Five divisions or canons of the rhetorical process
- Inventio: invention, discovery of valid arguments to support the thesis
- Dispositio: arrangement of the exordium (intro), narratio (narrative), confirmation (supporting arguments), refutation (anticipation of opposing arguments), peroration (closing)
- Elocutio: style
- Memoria: memory
- Actio: delivery
Three functions of writing
- Heuristic: invent, learn, discover
- Eristic: charm, offend, anger, engage, captivate
- Protreptic: persuade others to act differently
Modern Rhetoric: Purposes
- Expressive, Persuasive, Referential, Exploratory, Scientific, Informative, Literary,
Modern Rhetoric: Unity, Coherence, Emphasis
- Unity of thought, feeling, purpose
- Principle of Coherence: ideas must connect and relate logically
- principle of proportion, emphasis
Modern Rhetoric: Ethos, Pathos, Logos
- ethical appeal
- emotional appeal
- logical appeal
Modern Rhetoric: Spoken Language
- can capitalize on affect to enhance appeal to pathos
- makes use of pauses, repetitions, fillers
- gestures, facial expressions, emotion
- immediate and present context
- inflection, intonation, pitch, stress
Modern Rhetoric: Written Language
- establish voice and point of view
- develop context through figurative language, literary devices, vivid imagery
- specific organization
- transitions, topic and clincher sentences
- rhetorical devices
- punctuation, italics, boldface type, font, ellipses
The Role of Cultural Factors in Oral and Written Communication
- language learning is subconscious and natural and occurs in and out of school
- natural order to learning language
- culture shock, attitude, motivation
- Fossilization is the persistence of particular errors in speech and writing of second language learners
Steps to Writing Process
- Prewriting
- Drafting
- Revision
- Editing
- Publishing
Rhetorical Devices: Accismus, Accumulation, Amplification, Anadiplosis, Anaphora
- being coy, a person fakes a lack of interest in something he actually desires
- gathers scattered points and lists them together
- accumulation, metaphor, hyperbole, simile, copia (extensive description), epimone (repetition of a question), synasthroesmus (piling on the adjectives)
- repetition of the last word of one line or clause to begin the next
- repetition of the same word or phrase at the beginning of clauses
Rhetorical Devices: Anthymeme, Anticlimax, Antirrhesis, Antonomasia, Aphorism
- informally stated syllogism (Got milk?)
- abrupt shift from noble tone to a less exalted one
- argument is rejected because of its insignificance, error, or wickedness
- substitution of a title, epithet, or descriptive phrase for a proper name
- brief statement of a principle
Rhetorical Devices: Aporia, Aposiopesis, Apostrophe, Apposition, Asyndeton
- doubt or perplexity
- unfinished thought or broken sentence
- address some absent person or thing
- Matt, my husband
- omission of conjunctions
Rhetorical Devices: Auxesis, Bdelygmia, Boosting, Categoria, Chiasmus
- increase in intensity of meaning
- litany of abuse
- adverbial construction to express a viewpoint
- direct exposure of an adversary's faults
- second half of an expression is balanced against the first but with the parts reversed
Rhetorical Devices: Chleuasmos, Commonplace, Commoratio, Copia, Crot
- sarcastic reply that mocks an opponent
- knowledge that is commonly shared among a given audience
- repetition of a point several times in different words
- expansive richness as a stylistic goal
- fragment used as an autonomous unit without transitional devices
Rhetorical Devices: Dehortatio, Deliberative, Diacope, Diatyposis, Distintio
- dissuasive advice given with authority
- persuade an audience to take action
- repetition broken up by one or more intervening words
- advice
- explicit references to remove ambiguities
Rhetorical Devices: Dysphemism, Effectio, Ellipsis, Encomium, Epanalepsis
- more offensive word or phrase
- description of a person's physical attributes or charms
- omission of one or more words
- eulogy in prose or verse glorifying people
- repetition at the end of a clause or sentence of the word of phrase with which it began
Rhetorical Devices: Epicrisis, Epideictic, Epimone, Epiphora, Epiplexis
- speaker quotes a passage and comments on it
- demonstrative rhetoric, writing that praises or blames
- repetition of a phrase, dwelling on a point
- repetition of a word or phrase at the end of several clauses
- asking questions to reproach rather than to elicit answers
Rhetorical Devices: Epithet, Epizeuxis, Erotesis, Ethopoeia, Euphuism
- adjective used to characterize a person
- repetition of a word for emphasis
- rhetorical question that implies strong affirmation or denial
- putting oneself in place of another
- elaborately patterned prose style
Rhetorical Devices: Exordium, Exuscitatio, Gradatio, Hypophora, Hypotaxis
- introductory part of an argument
- emotional utterance
- last word of one clause becomes the first of the next
- speaker raises questions and answers them
- clauses in a dependent relationship
Rhetorical Devices: Induction, Invective, Invention, Isocolon, Kairos
- generalization
- abusive discourse that casts blame
- resources for persuasion
- succession of phrases of equal length
- opportune time and place
Rhetorical Devices: Litotes, Meiosis, Metonymy, Paralepsis, Parenthesis
- understatement, affirmative is expressed by negating its opposite
- to belittle
- phrase is substituted for another with which it is closely associated
- emphasizing a point by seeming to pass over it
- verbal unit that interrupts the normal flow of the sentence
Rhetorical Devices: Periodic sentence, Peroration, Polyptoton, Polysyndeton, Prolepsis
- long and frequently involved sentence
- the closing part of an argument
- repetition of words derived from the same root but with different endings
- style that employs a great many conjunctions
- future event is presumed to have already occured
Rhetorical Devices: Rhetorical situation, Running style, Sprezzatura, Syllogism, Synecdoche
- context of a rhetorical act
- style that appears to follow the mind
- rehearsed spontaneity, carelessness, naturalness
- deductive reasoning consisting of a major premise, a minor premise, and a conclusion
- part is used to represent the whole
Rhetorical Devices: Tapinosis, Tenor, Tetracolon climax, Tricolon, Trope
- undignified language
- principal subject that is the meaning of a metaphor
- series of four members
- series of three parallel words or phrases
- shift in the meaning of words
Rhetorical Devices: Vehicle, Zeugma
- the figure itself (vehicle and tenor)
- "He carried a strobe light and the responsibility for the lives of his men"
List of Performance Dimensions Found in Analytic Rubrics
- Content
- Vocabulary
- Use of grammar, spelling, punctuation
- Originality
- Diction
- Voice
- Organization
- Coherence
- Relationship between form and purpose
- Style
- Fluency
- Intonation
- Pronunciation
Sentence Variety: Simple, Compound, Complex, Compound-Complex
- one subject and one predicate
- two simple sentences joined by a conjunction
- independent clause joined by one or more dependent clauses
- both a compound sentence and a dependent clause
Comma Splice
- Connecting two complete sentences with a comma
First Language Acquisition
- B.F. Skinner: Verbal Behavior: stimulus and response
- Noam Chomsky: human language is much more complex
- Children learn language in social settings
- Language acquisition device is an instinctive ability
Theories of Reading: Bottom Up, Top Down, Interactive
- less emphasis on knowledge and preconceptions a reader brings to the text and asserts that meaning can be derived entirely from elements on the page
- basis for understanding a text is situated in a reader's assumptions about the text
- combines the top down and bottom up
Bottom Up Models
- Reading as Word Recognition: if the reader can identify the word, the reader will eventually derive meaning
- Reading as a Visual Process: vision is the modality through which the mind and the text interact
Top Down Models
- Reading as a Psycholinguistic Process: interaction between thought and words
- Reading as a Sociopsycholinguistic Process: readers use background knowledge, grammar, semantics
- Reading as a Metacognitive Process: conscious application of purposeful steps to derive meaning
Effective Reading Instruction
- Guided reading
- Independent Reading
- Reading aloud
- Shared reading
Five Connections made by Proficient Readers
- Text to self
- Text to text
- Text to world
- Text to author
- Text to structure
Bloom's Taxonomy: Six Levels of Understanding
- Knowledge
- Comprehension
- Application
- Analysis
- Synthesis
- Evaluation
Developing Vocabulary Understanding
- Prereading, categorizing, predicting
- Before, during, and after chart
- Visualization
- Using Context Clues
- Modeled and shared writing
- Interactive writing
- Independent writing
Theories of Second Language Acquisition
- Learning view: must be taught directly, broken into component parts, drill and practice, correct all errors
- Acquisition view: made understandable through different linguistic techniques so students can use language for a variety of purposes, using language in a variety of contexts and settings, focus on meaning and expression rather than errors
Book Awards
- Caldecott Medal given to a children's book for illustration
- Newbery Medal for a work written in English by an American citizen
- Coretta Scott King Book Award: African American author and illustrator