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63 terms

Biology 1308 Chapter 1

STUDY
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Biology
Study of life
Common characteristics shared by living organism include;
Order, regulation, growth, development, and energy utilization.
Order
All living things that are highly complex and organized
Regulation
All living things exhibit
Homeostasis
Ability to maintain constant internal environment. A good ex; Of Homeostasis is the human body maintaining a constant internal body temperature, no matter what the outside environmental temperature is, the internal body temperature remains relatively constant
Growth and Development
All living organisms exhibit an increase in size and shape during their lifetime
Energy Utilization
To maintain their highly complex and organized structure living things need material in the form of nutrients
Producers
Plants obtain their energy from the sunlight
Consumers
Animals that obtain energy from molecules within other organism
Energy flow
Sunlight---> Producer----> Consumer
Response to the environment
All living things respond to stimulus in their external and internal environment
(Animals have strong sensory organs that allow them to respond to a change in environment) (Plants is limited such as bending of the plant toward the source of light)
Reproduction
All living things have the capacity to reproduce
DNA
Hereditary of life
Evolution
Capacity of population to change over time
Life at many levels
Atoms-> Molecules-> Organelles->Cell> Tissue->Organs-> Organ System-> Individual organism-> Population-> Community-> Ecosystem-> Biosphere
Atom
Smallest unit of matter
(Made of electrons, protons, and neutrons)
Molecule
Composed of 2 or more atoms of the same type or different elements.
(Carbohydrates, Proteins, etc.)
Cell
Smallest unit of life
* Can survive and reproduce on its own
Tissue
Group or cells performing similar functions
Organ
Composed of two or more tissues interacting in a specific group
Organ System
A group or organs involved in a specific function
Organism
Individual living being made of different organ systems
Population
Group of individuals of the same type occupying a specific area
Community
All populations of all types occupying a specific area
Ecosystem
A community interacting with its non-living physical environment
Biosphere
Highest level of life
(Includes all regions of the earth's crust)
Cells can be divided into two basic types
Prokarytoic and Eukaryotic
Prokarytoic Cell
*Generally simpler and smaller in size
*Lack nucleus, DNA is present in the cytoplasm
*Lack membrane bound organelles
*Bacteria
Eukaryotic
* Generally complex and larger in size
* Membrane bound nucleus present with DAN inside
* Have well defined bound organelles,(Chloroplast, Mitochondria)
* Plants and Animals
Diversity of life
Scientists classify all living things into three domains
1. Domain Bacteria (Made up Prokaryotic Cells)
2. Archaea (Made up Prokaryotic Cells)
3. Eukarya (Made up Eukaryotic Cells)
Domain Bacteria
* Prokaryotes
*Unicellular (Single cell)
* Some make their own food by the process of photosynthesis
*Found in normal habitats
Domain Archaea
* Prokaryotes
*Unicellular (Single cell)
* None can make their own food
*Found in Hersh habitats (Boiling ocean, Freezing dessert rocks, Sulfur-rich lakes)
Domain Eukarya
*Include all organism with eukaryotic cell
* Unicellular and Multicellular
* Based on their structure and how they obtain food, this domain split into smaller categories(KINGDOMS)
Plantae
*Plants
*Multi-cellular
*Eukaryotes
* Obtain their food by photosynthesis
Fungi
* Multi-cellular
* Eukaryotes
* Obtains their food by absorption from the environment
Animalia
* Multi-cellular
* Eukaryotes
* Obtain their food by ingestion
Protist
*Unicellular
*Eukaryotes
* Absorb from the environment
* Ingest(Eat food through mouth)
* Make their own food
Theory Of Evolution
Proposed by Charles Darwin states that evolution is due to three natural processes
1. Genetic variation
2.Inheritance of these variations by offspring's
3. Natural Selection
Genetic variation
Makes us all different is mainly due to differences in our hereditary material
* DNA one of the major causes for this variation is MUTATION (Change in DNA sequence)
Inheritance
Variations by offspring's, especially the ones that are beneficial
Natural selection
Over time only those organism that are better suitable to the environment survive and multiply thus producing a population which is better adaptable to the environment
Scientific Method of Science
1. Observation
2. Question
3. Hypothesis
4. Predictions
5. Experiment
6. Conclusion
Observation
A tentative explanation that a scientists proposes for a specific phenomenon that has been observed
Hypothesis
Which is the first explanation of a problem? It is sometimes called an educated guess
* Proposed explanation for a set of observations-an idea on trial
Scientific theory
When a hypothesis has been repeatedly and rigorously tested and supported
Which of the following does not belong to Eukarya?
Archae
A mutation is?
A change in DNA Sequence
Science
Method of learning about natural world that follows the scientific method
Theory
broad in scope & supported by a large body of evidence
Ecosystem
All organisms in given area, along with the nonliving(a biotic) facts which they interact, a biological community and it's physical environment
Life
*Set of common characteristics that distinguish living organism
*Including such properties and processes as order, regulation, growth and development, energy utilization, response to the environment, reproduction, and the capacity to evolve over time
Controlled experiment
Component of the process of science whereby a scientist carries out two parallel tests, an experiment test and a control test. The experimental test differs from the control by one factor the VARIABLE
Hypothesis driven science
Process of scientific inquiry that uses the steps of the scientific method of answer questions about nature
Discovery science
Process of scientific investigation involving the observation of phenomena the formulation of a hypothesis concerning the phenomena(Experimentation to demonstrate the truth or falseness of the hypothesis, and result that validate or notify the hypothesis
Biosphere
Global ecosystem; the entire portion of Earth inhabited by life (All of life and where it lives)
Verifiable observation and measurements the tools of
Discovery Science
The life supporting region of Earth is the
Biosphere
Nucleus
Largest organelle in most eukaryotic cells, houses of DNA, the heritable material that directs the cells' activities
Insulin
Chemical that helps regulate your body's use of sugar as a fuel
Taxonomy
Classification
*Branch of Biology that names and classifies species
Evolution
Process that has transformed life on Earth from it's earliest beginnings to the extensive diversity we have today.
*Theme that unifies all of biology
Discovery science
Describing nature
Verifiable observations and measurements
Hypothesis-driven science
Explaining nature