99 terms

MBA 560 Ch 8

1) One of the challenges in understanding organizational behavior is that it addresses issues that
aren't obvious.
2) Organizational behavior is primarily concerned with group interactions.
False, it's concerned w/ individual, group, and organizational.
3) The goals of OB are to explain, predict, and understand behavior.
False, explain, predict, and influence
4) Attitudes are evaluative statements concerning objects, people, or events.
5) Individuals try to reconcile attitudes and behavior so they are both rational and consistent.
6) Cognitive dissonance arises when people feel that their behavior and attitudes are consistent.
False, inconsistent
7) The discomfort that results from high dissonance can be reduced when an individual feels that
she has a choice in the matter.
False, no choice
8) Research shows that high job satisfaction correlates with high productivity.
9) Personality is defined as a unique combination of behavioral, emotional, and thinking patterns
that each person has.
11) In the Big Five model, emotional security was positively related to job performance.
False, ironically it wans't
12) The ability to control one's own emotions is an important component in emotional
13) Emotional intelligence and academic intelligence are virtually identical.
15) A high Mach person tends to think that ends justify means.
18) A person who is risk-averse might do well as a stock trader.
19) According to John Holland, the key to job success is how well an individual's personality
matches his or her job.
20) According to John Holland's theory, a realistic personality type might be well-suited to be an
False, investigative =economist
22) U.S. workers, more than Iranian workers, would likely have an external locus of control.
23) A fundamental idea of perception is that all people interpret and distort reality in some way.
24) Distortion of perception can only come from the person who is perceiving
False, Distortion can come from context; time, location, lighting, teperature
25) Attribution theory is primarily concerned with identifying one's own behavior.
False, we observe an individuals behavior and atempt to determine the cause
26) Distinctiveness refers to whether an individual displays a behavior in many situations or
whether it's particular to one situation.
27) The fundamental attribution error states that individuals tend to overestimate the influence of
external factors in others.
False, UNDERestimate
28) Individuals tend to attribute their own successes to external factors.
False, Internal factors
29) In stereotyping, observers use group characteristics to judge individuals.
30) Perceptual shortcuts are not necessarily distorted.
False, there is always the potential for perceptual distortion
31) Operant behavior deals only with learned behavior.
33) Skinner would argue that a dog responding to a whistle is an innate or unlearned behavior.
34) Classical conditioning predicts that hearing music from a familiar horror movie might cause
a person to feel anxious.
35) Social learning theory maintains that models who are different from ourselves have the
greatest influence on our behavior.
36) When a manager praises an employee for a job well done, she is providing positive
37) Negative reinforcement penalizes an individual for an undesired behavior.
False, Punishment
38) Negative reinforcement is the withdrawal of something unpleasant.
False, something pleasant
40) Gen Y individuals tend to be comfortable with new types of electronic technology.
41) Which of the following best defines organizational behavior?
D) the study of the actions of people at work
43) Which of the following is a visible aspect of an organization?
D) objectives
44) Organizational behavior focuses on ________.
A) individual behavior and group behavior
45) Which of the following are the goals of organizational behavior?
C) to explain, predict, and influence behavior
46) When managers influence employee behavior they ________.
B) steer it in a particular direction
47) All of the following are included in the six behaviors that managers try to explain, predict,
and influence EXCEPT ________.
B) workplace attitudes and perceptions
49) Of the six behaviors that managers focus on, which behavior is typically the most troubling
to an organization?
A) absenteeism
50) ________ is a performance measure of both efficiency and effectiveness of employees.
A) Employee productivity
51) The three elements that make up an attitude are its ________ components.
A) cognitive, affective, and behavioral
52) The component of attitude that is made up of knowledge and information is ________.
A) cognitive
53) When you stand at attention during the playing of the national anthem you are revealing
which component of your attitude toward your country?
D) behavioral
55) Wendy spent several hours looking over an architect's plans and forming an impression for a
new building design. Which component of attitude did she carry out?
D) cognitive
56) After carefully examining the architect's plans yesterday, today Wendy has decided that she
loves the new design. Which component of forming an attitude did she carry out today?
B) affective
59) A manager would most likely be interested in employees' attitudes about which of the
C) job satisfaction
60) The degree to which an employee identifies with his or her job or actively participates in it
refers to the employee's ________
A) job involvement
64) In this country, the type of work one does is valued above all other factors with respect to
employee engagement.
D) France
65) Cognitive dissonance theory states that a person feels ________ when his attitudes and
actions don't match.
B) uncomfortable
66) The cognitive dissonance theory proposes that the factors that can mitigate the discomfort
caused by dissonance are ________.
A) importance, influence, and rewards
67) A person who is being hypocritical about something that has high importance in her life
would be likely to experience ________ discomfort from cognitive dissonance.
C) high
68) A person who is experiencing cognitive dissonance might have his discomfort from the
dissonance reduced if he has ________ control over his actions.
D) little or no
71) Which of the following are typically the most important reasons for why managers want to
increase positive job attitudes?
A) lower rates of turnover and absenteeism
73) To reduce dissonance in the workplace, managers are advised to hold ________ responsible
for the causes of the dissonance.
D) external forces
74) Rather than try to make employees happy, managers might do well to focus on making work
B) challenging and interesting
75) ________ is the unique combination of psychological traits that describe a person.
D) Personality
77) The extroversion versus introversion scale on the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator® determines
whether a person is oriented ________.
A) outwardly or inwardly
78) The judging versus perceiving scale on the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator® determines
whether a person is oriented ________.
C) toward planning or flexibility
81) If you are a person who dislikes making plans, you would probably score high on which
aspect of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator®?
D) more perceiving than judging
83) The Big Five model of personality includes all of the following exceot ________.
D) intuitiveness
84) Job studies show that this Big Five personality dimension was consistently important for
success no matter what the job type.
C) openness to experience
85) Surprisingly, studies show that emotional security is ________.
D) not positively related to job performance
86) Emotional intelligence includes all of the following EXCEPT ________.
A) cognitive skills
87) This dimension of emotional intelligence allows people to sense and understand how others
are feeling
C) empathy
89) The Bell Labs and Air Force studies have shown that emotional intelligence is ________ job
D) more important than academic intellect in
91) A tennis player who blames a loss on windy conditions would be likely to have ________.
A) an external locus of control
92) A person who believes that "the ends justify the means" would be likely to have a high level
of which personality trait?
B) Machiavellianism
93) This kind of individual might be most likely to have legal problems.
D) risk-averse
94) High self-esteem individuals tend to ________.
C) take risks
96) A high self-monitoring individual would tend to ________.
C) be good at playing different roles
97) A low self-monitoring individual would tend NOT to pursue a career as ________.
A) an actor
99) A NASCAR race car driver would be a good occupational match for which personality type?
B) risk taker
100) John Holland's theory assumes all of the following EXCEPT ________.
D) people in jobs that suit their personality make more money
102) A person rating high on the investigative personality type would have the best job match for
which job?
C) reporter
103) According to Holland's social scale, becoming a lawyer would be a good job match for
someone with this personality type.
D) enterprising
105) Chinese workers tend to value ________ than Americans.
C) agreeableness less
107) Managers in Germany and the United States would probably agree that the most important
factor for job performance is ________.
B) conscientiousness
108) ________ is the process of organizing and interpreting sensory impressions to give meaning
to the environment.
D) Perception
109) Different people typically have ________.
C) different perceptions of the same situation
111) Factors that can influence the perceiver of a situation include ________.
A) temperature, time, location
113) Attribution theory is primarily concerned with explaining ________.
C) the behavior of others
114) In attribution theory, ________ behavior is largely beyond an individual's control.
A) externally caused
115) In attribution theory, if everyone who is faced with a similar situation responds in the same
way, we can say the behavior shows ________.
A) consensus
118) In attribution theory, the behavior of an individual who shows high distinctiveness and low
consistency is likely to be attributed as ________.
D) externally caused
119) If a person who is always late for work is late once again and blames it on a traffic jam,
coworkers would probably attribute that person's lateness to ________.
C) an internal source
120) Which pairing is correct?
C) high consensus ! external cause of behavior
122) The fundamental attribution error causes people to tend to attribute ________.
A) successes of others to external factors
123) The self-serving bias causes people to tend to attribute ________.
C) their own successes to internal factors
124) When people judge someone on the basis of the perception of a group they are a part of,
they are using the shortcut called ________.
A) stereotyping
125) By using ________, we form an impression about a person based on a single characteristic,
such as intelligence or appearance.
C) the halo effect
126) Any relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience is known
as ________.
B) learning
127) Operant conditioning is any behavior that occurs as a result of ________.
C) reinforcement from reward or punishment
128) Social learning theory involves learning through ________.
D) observing models
129) The amount of influence a model has begins with the ________ process of becoming aware
of the model.
A) attentional
131) Which of the following is NOT thought to be a tool that managers can use to shape
D) attentional processes
132) When a manager gives an employee a bonus for a job well done, which behavior-shaping
method is the manager using?
A) positive reinforcement
135) In an attempt to get employees to stop congregating, a manager decides to remove free
bagels from the company snack bar. Which behavior-shaping method is she using?
D) extinction
138) Which of the following is on the rise in today's organizations?
C) hostility and aggression