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-psychoanalytic theory
*industry vs inferiority (competent/incompetent)-Erikson

self concept

- The Me-Self
Comparison to peers (social comparision)
- The Self-Esteem
Effortful control
- Culture


- Same age, same status
The culture of children
- Positive vs. Negative peer relations
- Concern for classmates
- Social acceptance
- Meaningful friendships
- Clique formation
- Self-validation


- Dyadic-group of two
- Reciprocal
- Developmental changes

social status

acceptance in a peer group

types of social status

- Popular: kind, trustworthy, cooperative, highly liked, rarely disliked
- Average: average like to average dislike ratio; middle
- Neglected: low like, low dislike; forgotten
- Rejected: low like, high dislike
- Aggressive-rejected: bully type, in your face
-Withdrawn-rejected: bully victim, timid
- Controversial: high dislike, high like; can be popular
ex. popular kid in hs
- This varies culture to culture

social awareness

the ability to empathize, to understand the emotions of others and to use this understanding to better relate to them

social cognition

- Other
- Self with others

rejected child

child who is infrequently nominated as best friend and is disliked by their peers
--liked vs rejected?


- Happens everywhere—repeated behavior
- Physical: hitting, pushing, shoving
- Verbal: teasing, mocking
- Relational: singling someone out
- Cyberbullying: mean or embarrassing things sent to the world or class


- Not one good friend: withdrawn

Bully victim- Most disliked: aggressive victim, lack empathy, difficulty using social cognition, about the me

boys bullying

- Bully more aggressive
- Target smaller/weaker
- Physical aggression

girls bullying

- Sharp-tongued
- Target shyer
- Verbal aggression

bullying causes

- Genetic predisposition
- Insecure attachment
- Stress at home
- Ineffective discipline
- Hostile family life
* Family life has a huge impact on child- most important

how to stop bullying?

- Ignoring, retaliating, diffusing, avoiding
- Finding new friends
- More effort and changes made by schools and teachers

• Moral development by Lawrence Kohlberg (pg. 370 Table 3.3)

- Pre-conventional moral reasoning
* Egocentric/preoperational
- Coventional moral reasoning
* Concrete operational
- Post-conventional moral reasoning
* Abstract

family and children

family is critical to children's development

family structure vs family function

- Structure: legal and genetic connections among related people in the same household
- Function: how the family cares for each other (more important)

what children need:

- Material necessities
- Learning
- Self-respect
- Peer relationships
- Harmony and stability

different types of homes

- Nuclear family: 54-70%
- 2 adult families
- Single parent families: 28% & rising
- Extended family

family trouble

- Low income
- Low harmony
- Stress


- Dynamic
- Positive adaptation
- Significant adverisity


- Both major and minor
- Accumulates over time
- Coping measure help
- Social support/religious faith

The ____ self is a person who thinks, acts, & feels independently. The ___ self is a person reflected validated and critiques by others.

I; Me

girls who typically bully

Mock and ridicule their victim

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