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25 terms

Psychosocial Development: Middle Childhood (7-11)

STUDY
PLAY
Theories
-psychoanalytic theory
*Latency-Freud
*industry vs inferiority (competent/incompetent)-Erikson
-Behaviorism
-Cognitive
-Social-cognitive
self concept
- The Me-Self
Comparison to peers (social comparision)
- The Self-Esteem
Effortful control
- Culture
peers
- Same age, same status
The culture of children
- Positive vs. Negative peer relations
- Concern for classmates
- Social acceptance
- Meaningful friendships
- Clique formation
- Self-validation
friendship
- Dyadic-group of two
- Reciprocal
- Developmental changes
social status
acceptance in a peer group
types of social status
- Popular: kind, trustworthy, cooperative, highly liked, rarely disliked
- Average: average like to average dislike ratio; middle
- Neglected: low like, low dislike; forgotten
- Rejected: low like, high dislike
- Aggressive-rejected: bully type, in your face
-Withdrawn-rejected: bully victim, timid
- Controversial: high dislike, high like; can be popular
ex. popular kid in hs
- This varies culture to culture
social awareness
the ability to empathize, to understand the emotions of others and to use this understanding to better relate to them
social cognition
-Self
- Other
- Self with others
rejected child
child who is infrequently nominated as best friend and is disliked by their peers
--liked vs rejected?
bullying
- Happens everywhere—repeated behavior
- Physical: hitting, pushing, shoving
- Verbal: teasing, mocking
- Relational: singling someone out
- Cyberbullying: mean or embarrassing things sent to the world or class
victims
- Not one good friend: withdrawn

Bully victim- Most disliked: aggressive victim, lack empathy, difficulty using social cognition, about the me
boys bullying
- Bully more aggressive
- Target smaller/weaker
- Physical aggression
girls bullying
- Sharp-tongued
- Target shyer
- Verbal aggression
bullying causes
- Genetic predisposition
- Insecure attachment
- Stress at home
- Ineffective discipline
- Hostile family life
* Family life has a huge impact on child- most important
how to stop bullying?
- Ignoring, retaliating, diffusing, avoiding
- Finding new friends
- More effort and changes made by schools and teachers
• Moral development by Lawrence Kohlberg (pg. 370 Table 3.3)
- Pre-conventional moral reasoning
* Egocentric/preoperational
- Coventional moral reasoning
* Concrete operational
- Post-conventional moral reasoning
* Abstract
family and children
family is critical to children's development
family structure vs family function
- Structure: legal and genetic connections among related people in the same household
- Function: how the family cares for each other (more important)
what children need:
- Material necessities
- Learning
- Self-respect
- Peer relationships
- Harmony and stability
different types of homes
- Nuclear family: 54-70%
- 2 adult families
- Single parent families: 28% & rising
- Extended family
family trouble
- Low income
- Low harmony
- Stress
resiliance
- Dynamic
- Positive adaptation
- Significant adverisity
stress
- Both major and minor
- Accumulates over time
- Coping measure help
- Social support/religious faith
The ____ self is a person who thinks, acts, & feels independently. The ___ self is a person reflected validated and critiques by others.
I; Me
girls who typically bully
Mock and ridicule their victim