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In a characteristic interaction, an x-ray photon results when:

An outer shell electron fills a hole left by an ejected inner shell electron

When a ______________________ occurs, the incident electron interacts with the force field of the nucleus:

Bremsstrahlung Interaction

The energy of a characteristic photon depends on the:

Difference of binding energies of the two shells involved

In a bremsstrahlung interaction, the emission of a photon is caused by:

The deceleration of the electron as it nears the nucleus

It is necessary for the incident electron to have higher energy than the K-shell electrons in order for this interaction to occur:


The principle difference between an x-ray photon and a gamma ray is the:

Origin of the photon

The energy of the photons produced in bremsstrahlung x-ray production is dependent on:

Incident electron speed
Atomic # of target
Electron to nucleus distance

Approximate percentage of electron energy that is converted to x-ray energy in the x-ray tube?


Approximate percentage of Kenetic Energy converted into thermal energy 'heat'?


Explain the difference between keV and kVp

keV: Unit of measure of binding energy of an electron
Kvp: controls the quality of electrons striking the target


1,000 electron volts

What effect does increasing the mAs have on the total x-ray emission spectrum?

Changes in Amplitude

What effect does increasing the kVp have on the total x-ray emission spectrum?

Changes the Amplitude and the Number of Photons

X-rays are produced when a high-speed electron from the _____ hits the _____ target.

Cathode / Anode

An Incident Electron travels from zero to half the speed of light in:

2 cm

Higher Mass or Speed of the Incident Electron =

Higher quality & quantity of Photons produced.

Two types of Target Interactions:

Heat & X-ray production

The production of X-ray is very ________.


In _______ the majority of energy is converted into radiation instead of heat.


Two types of target interactions that cause radiation:

Bremsstrahlung / Characteristic

Graph of X-ray energies


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