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Chapter 8 Blanks

lecture notes blanks for studying
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Glycerol and three fatty acids
Fats and oils are made from two kinds of molecules. What are they?
Glycerol
___ is a type of alcohol with a hydroxyl group on each of its three carbons
Fatty Acid
A long hydrocarbon chain and a terminal carboxyl group
Energy storage, cell membrane development, and serving as a component of hormones and vitamins in the body
Three major purposes of lipids
saturated, unsaturated
Fatty acids are either ___ or ___
Linoleic, gamma-linolenic
Some fatty acids are not synthesized by mammals yet they are essential fatty acids. Which include_____ and ____
Arachidonic acid
_____ can be synthesized by mammals only from linoleic acid. It is not an essential fatty acid.
polyunsaturated
Palm oil is low in ___ fatty acids and high in palmitic acid.
Simple
If all fatty acids are the same it is a ___ triacylglycerol.
Mixed
If one or more fatty acids are different, it is know as a ____ triacylglycerol
reduced, 38, 17
Triacylglycerols are a major source of energy for many organisms. They are rich in highly ___ carbons and complete oxidation of one gram of triacylglycerol yields about ___ kJ, whereas proteins and carbohydrates yield about ____ kJ per gram.
1,2 diacylglycerol
In glycerophospholipids a _____ has a phospho group esterphied at carbon 3
phosphatidic acid
Glycerol phopholipids are named as derivatives of the parent compound _____ according to the polar alcohol in the head group
Carbon 1
Etherglyceropholipids have an ether rather than ester linkage at ___ of glycerol.
PAF
An example of an etherglyceropholipid is ___.
Sphingolipids
An 18 carbon amino alcohol forms the backbone of _____.
Sphingomyelin
____ is formed when phosphoryl choline or phosphorylethanolamine are linked to 1 hydroxyl group of ceramide.
Glycosphingolipids
___ are ceramides with one or more sugars in beta-glycosidic linkage at the 1 hydroxyl group.
Cerebrosides
Glycosphingolipids with one sugar are ____
Gangliosides
Ceramides with three or more sugars, one of which is a sialic acid, are ____
insoluble
Waxes are ___ in water due to their mostly hydrocarbon composition.
Isoprene
Terpenes are a class of lipids formed from combinations of two or more of ___.
Monoturpenes
___ consist of two isoprene units.
Sesquiterpenes
___ consist of three isoprenes.
Diterpenes
___ consist of 4 isporene units.
cholesterol
The most common steroid in animals is ___
Steroids
Common structural motif is 3 fused 6 member rings and one 5 member ring.
Weakly polar
Cholesterol is ___ due to the hydroxyl group of carbon 3.
7-dehydrocholesterol
Vitamin D3 is generated from the skin of animals when light is absorbed by a precursor molecule _____.