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a group of interbreeding inddividuals of the same species


species cluster where resources are availabe, groups have a better chance of finding resources


resources are limited, a little far apart


no order to how its organized

age structure

the number of percentage of males and females in yound, middle, and older agre groups

Reproductive strageties

1.Produce many, small offsprings, provide little or no parental protection
2.Few offsprings, mature slowly and have a life span, are cured for by one or both parents.

human population growth

increased due to ability to expand in all climate zones, agriculture allows more food production,and improved health care( this decreased the death rate)

cultural carrying capacity

maximum number of people that can be supported at a reasonble level of comfort without effecting the future generation.

infant morality rates

female health, access to healthy food, better nuitrition, safe water supplies helped increase the new born.

age structure

the number of % of males and females in each age groups, indicate rate of population growth.

Family planning -slowing population-

provides educational and clinical services that help couples choose how many children to have and when to have them

Economic development -slowing population-

as countries become more industralized the population decreases

Empowering women -slowing population-

women tend to have fewer childrend if they are educated

Urban areas

1. natural increase(more birhts than deaths)
2.immigration, mostly from rural areas.

urban sprawl

the growth of low-density development on the edges of cities and towns

urbanization advantages

economic benefits, developed education, transportation, jobs, recycling

urbanization disadvantages

unsustainable, 25 of land is occupied tget consume about 75% of its resources, and produce 75% of the world's climate changing carbon dioxide.

lack of vegetation

vegetation can abosrb air pollution, where trees are destroyed in order to make buildings, roads, parking lots,

water issues in cities

deeper wells must be drilled so this causes, flooding, deplete underground water supplies, global warming reduces the glaciers that melt each year

Pollution in cities

produced in smaller areas and cannot be dispersed , increase infectious dieseases


cities are warmer, heat is always being generated by cars,

artifical light

created by cities which affects plant and animal species,

Smart Growth

one way to encourage more environmentally sustainable development that requires less dependence on cars, controls and directs sprawl, and reduces wasteful resource use.


the number of people living per unit of an area (e.g. per square mile); the number of people relative to the space occupied by them


The action or process of distributing things or people over a wide area.


migration from a place (especially migration from your native country in order to settle in another). Leaving a country

Environmental Resistance

The resistance presented by the environmental conditions to limit a species from growing out of control or to stop them from reproducing at maximum rate.

Logistic Growth

Population growth in which the growth rate decreases with increasing number of individuals until it becomes zero when the population reaches a maximum.

Exponential Growth

Growth whose rate becomes ever more rapid in proportion to the growing total number or size

Density independent factor

A factor that affects the size of a population independent or regardless of the population density.

Density dependent factor

A factor whose effects on the size or growth of population vary with the population density.

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