Terms in this set (1976)

Either anaphylactic (bee stings, some foods/drugs).....or atopic/allergic (hay fever, rhinitis, asthma, eczema, etc)

Initial antigen exposure stimulates production of IgE antibodies‚ which attach to the surface of mast cells.
• Re-exposure to same antigen → crosslinking of surface bound IgE molecules !!!! → degranulation of basophils and mast cells which release histamineamine*. This initiates the immediate phase of the reaction. which causes itching; bronchospasm‚ wheezing‚ and shortness of breath; and vasodilation and edema formation with low blood pressure‚ weakness‚ and tissue swelling.
• Immediate Phase: Release of histamine, tryptase (!!), kinogenase (!!!), prostaglandins, platelet aggregating factor, and ECF-A. Since no products need to be synthesized by the cell, this process is rapid. !!!!!

While the initial phase is in progress, the cell also begins synthesizing leukotrienes and their derivatives as a part of the late phase of the reaction. The products of the late phase reaction are inflammatory and attract neutrophils and eosinophils.

Eosinophils are recruited to the site of inflammation as a part of the late-phase reaction. Once present, they release several mediators, among them arylsulfatase and histaminase which can act to decrease the severity of inflammation. However, LTC4 and PAF are also released which overall activate mast cells to further release cytokines.
Thus, eosinophils are now believed to amplify and sustain the inflammatory response, thus necessitating treatment with corticosteroids.
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1605 of 1982
# posterior hip dislocation
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Can injure the superior gluteal nerve (L4-S1) or the inferior glureal nerve (L5-S2).
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# Common peroneal (fibular) nerve: (!!!)
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This is the most commonly injured nerve in the leg due to its superficial location where it courses laterally around the neck of the fibula.
Patient is unable to evert or dorsiflex foot and can't extend toes . So foot is held in inversion, plantar flexed position.

Foot drop!!!!
• There is also a sensory loss in the anterolateral leg and dorsal aspect of foot (!!)
• Injury to common peroneal nerve presents with a drop foot

• Can be caused by:
- a direct blow to the lateral aspect of leg
- fibula neck fracture (!!!)
- cast that is too tight
See full text (press T)
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Bullous Pemphigoid
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Autoimmune destruction of the hemidesmosomes, due to an IgG antibody against the in the type XVII collagen components of hemidesmosomes in the basement membrane at the dermal-epidermal junction, giving a LINEAR pattern immunofluorescence

The entire epidermis is lifted off the dermis, so we get a subepidermal blister of the skin, with the oral musoca spared !!!!
The tense bullae do not rupture very easily because the wall is thicker because it contains the entire epidermis
Edit


This is the most commonly injured nerve in the leg due to its superficial location where it courses laterally around the neck of the fibula.
Patient is unable to evert or dorsiflex foot and can't extend toes . So foot is held in inversion, plantar flexed position.

Foot drop!!!!
• There is also a sensory loss in the anterolateral leg and dorsal aspect of foot (!!)
• Injury to common peroneal nerve presents with a drop foot

• Can be caused by:
- a direct blow to the lateral aspect of leg
- fibula neck fracture (!!!)
- cast that is too tight
This is the most commonly injured nerve in the leg due to its superficial location where it courses laterally around the neck of the fibula.
Patient is unable to evert or dorsiflex foot and can't extend toes . So foot is held in inversion, plantar flexed position.

Foot drop!!!!
• There is also a sensory loss in the anterolateral leg and dorsal aspect of foot (!!)
• Injury to common peroneal nerve presents with a drop foot

• Can be caused by:
- a direct blow to the lateral aspect of leg
- fibula neck fracture (!!!)
- cast that is too tight