Chapter 5: Gastrointestinal System

key terms
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alcoholic gastritis
inflammation of the stomach lining caused by alcohol
bacterial (phlegmonous) gastritis
inflammation of the stomach lining caused by a bacterial infection
chronic atrophic gastritis
refers to severe mucosal atrophy that causes thinning and a relative absence of mucosal folds, with the fundus or entire stomach having a bald appearance
chyme
gastric contents that have become mixed with hydrochloric acid and the proteolytic enzyme pepsin, resulting in a milky white product
colonic ileus
selective or disproportionate gaseous distention of the large bowel without an obstruction
congenital tracheoesophageal (TE) fistulas
result from the failure of a satisfactory esophageal lumen to develop completely separate from the trachea
constipation
extra water is absorbed from the fecal mass to produce a hardened stool
corrosive gastritis
inflammation of the stomach caused by corrosive agents
deglutition
swallowing
diarrhea
results from the increased motility of the small bowel, which floods the colon with an excessive amount of water that cannot be completely absorbed
diarrheogenic islet cell tumors
produce the WDHA syndrome
emulsifier
substance that acts like soap by dispersing the fat into very small droplets that permit it to mix with water
epiphrenic diverticula
outpouching found in the distal 10 cm of the esophagus
glycogen
excess glucose absorbed is stored as...
hepatitis
inflammatory disease of the liver
infectious gastritis
inflammation of the stomach lining caused by a microorganism
infiltrating
spreading into surrounding tissue
insulinoma
hormone-secreting neoplasm most frequenly in the tail of the pancreas, usually benign
irritable bowel syndrome
refers to several conditions that have an alteration in intestinal motility
localized ileus
isolated distended loop of small or large bowel
malabsorption disorder
multitude of conditions in which there is defective absorption in the small bowel
Mallory-Weiss syndrome
subsequent inflammation of the distal esophagus due to a laceration associated with bleeding and mediastinal penetration caused by severe retching and vomiting
mastication
chewing
pancreatitis
an inflammatory process in which protein and lipid-digesting enzymes become activated within the pancreas and begin to digest the organ itself
peristalsis
wormlike movement by which the alimentary canal or other tubular organ propels its contents
polypoid
resembling a polyp
pyloric stenosis
also known as infantile hypertrophic _____ ______ (IHPS), occurs when the two muscular layers of the pylorus become hyperplastic and hypertrophic
traction
process of placing tension between two structures
ulceration
destruction of tissue creating an opening within a structure
ulcerogenic islet cell tumors (gastrinomas)
tumor found in pancreas and duodenum that is associated with peptic ulcers
villi
finger-like projections of the small bowel to increase the inner surface area
Zenker's diverticula
outpouching that arises from the posterior wall of the upper esophagus