39 terms

Exam 2 Nutrition

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Name the 3 monosaccharides
Glucose
Fructose
Galactose
glucose
blood sugar
fructose
sweetest of the sugars
galactose
not common. only in a few foods
fructose shape
hexagon shape, has O at the top center. HOCH2 on left side CH2OH on right side
Glucose shape
6 lines. has 5 O and 1 C. HO close to OH
galactose shape
6 lines. 5 O and 1 C. HO closer to CH2OH
disaccharides
pairs of the three monosaccharides
maltose
2 glucose
sucrose
glucose + fructose
lactose
galactose + glucose
condensation
links two monosaccharides together. RELEASES a water molecule
hydrolysis
breaks a disaccharide in two. USES WATER molecule to break disaccharide.
polysaccharides
glycogen
starch
fiber
glycogen
storage form of energy in the body (liver/muscle cells)
glucose units in highly branched chains
hormones signal enzymes to hydrolyze chains
starch
storage form of energy in plants
glucose units in long, regular chains
digestion enzymes hydrolyze chains.
fibers
different from starches
soluble fibers
dissolve in water and are fermented by bacteria in the colon
oats, barley, legumes, citrus
LOWER CHOLESTEROL and blood glucose
insoluble fibers
not easily fermented
vegetables and bran
promote digestive health and prevent disease
carbohydrate digestion goal
break down sugar and starches into small molecules (glucose) that the body can use and absorb.
Mouth:
amylase
stomach
stomach acid inactivated carbohydrate digestive enzymes.
fiber give a feeling of satiety.
Small intestine
most carbohydrate digestion
pancreatic disaccharide enzymes on outer membranes, completed within 1-4hrs: maltase, sucrase, lactase
large intestine
fibers attract water
bacteria ferment some and the colon uses energy
carbohydrate absorption
active transport:
glucose and galactose
facilitated diffusion
fructose
liver converts
converts fructose and galactose, while glucose heads right out to cells.
when is lactase activity highest?
immediately after birth and declines with age.
Only __ of adults worldwide digest ___
30%, lactose
this may be caused by disease, medication, malnutrition, age, temporary or permanent.
symptoms of intolerance of lactase
acid and gas
dietary changes
mange dairy consumption rather than restriction
fermented milk products
individualized diets
potential nutrition deficiencies
condensation after eating
after eating, blood glucose rises, then the liver links excess into glycogen for storage
last only hrs
fat is used for __
long term storage
glucose 4 energy:
fuels most of body's cells
preferred source for brain, nerve cells, and developing red blood cells.
making glucose from protein
happens when the boys is starving of carbohydrates
liver or skeletal muscle cells are used. fats won't work.
amino acid conversion or gluconerogenesis.
liver converts __ into ketone bodies/fatty acids when starved of carbohydrates
fat
ketosis
disturbs normal blood ph, frequently causes kidney stones/kidney damage and bone demineralization
carbohydrate needs for protein
sparing and prevention of ketosis
the constancy of blood glucose (6 steps)
1. Eating causes glucose to rise
2. blood glucose stimulates pancreas to release insulin.
3. insulin stimulates cells to take in glucose and live/muscles to store glycogen
4. blood glucose levels decline
5. low blood glucose levels stimulate release of glucagon
6. glucagon stimulates breakdown of glycogen.