hexagon shape, has O at the top center. HOCH2 on left side CH2OH on right side
6 lines. has 5 O and 1 C. HO close to OH
6 lines. 5 O and 1 C. HO closer to CH2OH
pairs of the three monosaccharides
glucose + fructose
galactose + glucose
links two monosaccharides together. RELEASES a water molecule
breaks a disaccharide in two. USES WATER molecule to break disaccharide.
glycogen starch fiber
storage form of energy in the body (liver/muscle cells) glucose units in highly branched chains hormones signal enzymes to hydrolyze chains
storage form of energy in plants glucose units in long, regular chains digestion enzymes hydrolyze chains.
different from starches
dissolve in water and are fermented by bacteria in the colon oats, barley, legumes, citrus LOWER CHOLESTEROL and blood glucose
not easily fermented vegetables and bran promote digestive health and prevent disease
carbohydrate digestion goal
break down sugar and starches into small molecules (glucose) that the body can use and absorb.
stomach acid inactivated carbohydrate digestive enzymes. fiber give a feeling of satiety.
most carbohydrate digestion pancreatic disaccharide enzymes on outer membranes, completed within 1-4hrs: maltase, sucrase, lactase
fibers attract water bacteria ferment some and the colon uses energy
carbohydrate absorption active transport:
glucose and galactose
converts fructose and galactose, while glucose heads right out to cells.
when is lactase activity highest?
immediately after birth and declines with age.
Only __ of adults worldwide digest ___
30%, lactose this may be caused by disease, medication, malnutrition, age, temporary or permanent.
symptoms of intolerance of lactase
acid and gas
mange dairy consumption rather than restriction fermented milk products individualized diets potential nutrition deficiencies
condensation after eating
after eating, blood glucose rises, then the liver links excess into glycogen for storage last only hrs
fat is used for __
long term storage
glucose 4 energy:
fuels most of body's cells preferred source for brain, nerve cells, and developing red blood cells.
making glucose from protein
happens when the boys is starving of carbohydrates liver or skeletal muscle cells are used. fats won't work. amino acid conversion or gluconerogenesis.
liver converts __ into ketone bodies/fatty acids when starved of carbohydrates
disturbs normal blood ph, frequently causes kidney stones/kidney damage and bone demineralization
carbohydrate needs for protein
sparing and prevention of ketosis
the constancy of blood glucose (6 steps)
1. Eating causes glucose to rise 2. blood glucose stimulates pancreas to release insulin. 3. insulin stimulates cells to take in glucose and live/muscles to store glycogen 4. blood glucose levels decline 5. low blood glucose levels stimulate release of glucagon 6. glucagon stimulates breakdown of glycogen.