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Arts and Humanities
PRESIDENT TRUMAN AND CONTAINMENT AND THE COLD WAR
Terms in this set (33)
Harry S. Truman
served from April 1945 until 1953 (Democrat), The 33rd U.S. president, who succeeded Franklin D. Roosevelt upon Roosevelt's death in April 1945. Truman, who led the country through the last few months of World War II, is best known for making the controversial decision to use two atomic bombs against Japan in August 1945. After the war, Truman was crucial in the implementation of the Marshall Plan, which greatly accelerated Western Europe's economic recovery.
(May 8, 1945) , Victory in Europe Day on May 8th, 1945 celebrated the official defeat of the Nazis and end of WWII in Europe.
Germany and Berlin divided into occupation zones
Germany split into four between the USSR, the U.S., Britain, and France; Berlin split into four as well, with the USSR controlling the Eastern half and the remaining half split between the remaining three nations
(August 6, 1945), City in Japan, the first to be destroyed by an atomic bomb, on August 6, 1945. The bombing hastened the end of World War II; site of 1st Atomic Bomb, killing 70,000+ Japanease citizens
(August 9, 1945); The second Japanese city on which an atomic bomb was dropped., The second target for an atomic bomb attack, three days after the Americans bombed HIROSHIMA. On the following day Japan surrendered and the ceasefire began on August 15, the official surrender finally being signed on September 2.
(August 14, 1945) - U.S. occupation of Japan, "Victory over Japan day" is the celebration of the Surrender of Japan, which was initially announced on August 15, 1945.
Soviet control imposed in Eastern Europe
free elections denied; After WWII soviets said they wanted to control eastern europe and U.S. said no. They took over eastern Europe during the Cold War
coup d'etat in Czechoslovakia, p. 31
Feb. 1948; Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, with Soviet backing, assumed undisputed control over government of Czechoslovakia for four decades; the West responded to the event with the Marshall Plan, the creation of a state in West Germany, and vigorous measures to keep Communists out of power in France and especially Italy; Czechoslovak communists quickly took over the country. The West was shocked, and it helped lead to the Marshall Plan and NATO.
Turkey and Greece
Difficulties faced by Greece after the war in quelling a communist rebellion, along with demands by the Soviet Union for military bases in the Turkish Straits, prompted the United States to declare the Truman Doctrine in 1947. The doctrine enunciated American intentions to guarantee the security of Turkey and Greece, and resulted in large-scale U.S. military and economic support; Both countries were included in the Marshall Plan for rebuilding European economies in 1948 countries United States first apply the Truman Doctrine, which stated that the U.S. would provide military and economic assistance to any nation under the threat of communism
British and Soviet forces occupied Iran. American troops later entered Iran to handle the delivery of war supplies to the USSR. At the Tehran Conference in 1943 the Tehran Declaration, signed by the United States, Great Britain, and the USSR, guaranteed the independence and territorial integrity of Iran. USSR, dissatisfied with the refusal of the Iranian government to grant it oil concessions, fomented a revolt in the north which led to the establishment of the People's Republic of Azerbaijan and the Kurdish People's Republic, headed by Soviet-controlled leaders. When Soviet troops remained in Iran following the expiration of a wartime treaty that also allowed the presence of American and British troops, Iran protested to the United Nations. The Soviets finally withdrew after receiving a promise of oil concessions from Iran subject to approval by the parliament. The Soviet-established governments in the north, lacking popular support, were deposed by Iranian troops late in 1946, and the paiament subsequently rejected the oil concessions
Churchill's Iron Curtain speech
Truman allowed Churchill to "test the waters" in bad-mouthing USSR. Called communists a threat to Christian civilization. Said that Europe was not liberated, and did not contain essentials for peace. Stalin responded by comparing Churchill to Hitler and saying that Churchill's speech was a call to arms; mobilized USA to take lead against Russian expansion.
an American advisor, diplomat, political scientist, and historian, best known as "the father of containment" and as a key figure in the emergence of the Cold War. He later wrote standard histories of the relations between Russia and the Western powers; US ambassador to Russia, notified Truman of Soviet ambitions to expand empire and overthrow other political forces; established concern for Soviet policy in Eastern Europe, Germany, and the Middle East; George Kennan had been a American diplomat on the Soviet front, beginning his career as an observer of the aftermath of the Russian Civil War. He witnessed collectivization and the terror from close range and sent his telegram after another two years' service in Moscow from 1944 to 1946 as chief of mission and Ambassador Averell Harriman's consultant. In 1946, Kennan was 44 years old, fluent in the Russian language and its affairs, and decidedly anti-communist
"The Sources of Soviet Conduct" ft. 15 on page 35
A book written by George Kenan. Signed it with a X; The single document that best illustrated American anti-communism and general suspicion of Soviet aspirations, was George Kennan's famous Long Telegram of 1946. The Long Telegram was perhaps the most cited and most influential statement of the early years of the Cold War.
a policy of creating strategic alliances in order to check the expansion of a hostile power or ideology or to force it to negotiate pecefully; American policy of resisting further expansion of Soviet controlled communism around the world.
centers of industrial power, p. 38
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