22 terms

# Scientists and their accomplishments

Basic Principles of Science Biology Praxis II
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Aristotle
350BCE Earth-centered (geocentric) universe
Ptolemy
140CE mathematical model of geocentric universe with spherical orbits
Copernicus
1530CE Earth spinning on its axis; sun-centered (heliocentric) universe
Galileo
1564-1642 invented telescope; used investigative inquiry methods; confirmed heliocentric model; discovered details about moon, sun, and planets
Kepler
1571-1630 proposed mathematical model for elliptical heliocentric orbits of planetary motion with varying speeds
Isaac Newton
1643-1727 Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy - explained the 3 laws of motion
Newton's first law of motion
Law of inertia (things at rest stay at rest, things in motion stay in motion)
Newton's second law of motion
Law of acceleration on force and mass (F=MA)
Newton's third law of motion
Law of action and reaction (every action has an equal and opposite reaction)
Newton's law of universal gravitation
every point mass in the universe attracts every other point mass with a force that is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.
Charles Lyell
1797-1875 Principles of Geography - earth is older than previously thought, set stage for ideas of natural selection later proposed by Darwin; considered rock and sediment layering patterns and fossil placement
Albert Einstein
1879-1955 Theories of Relativity - found that Newton's laws of motion didn't hold true in high velocity (~speed of light) or very small mass; E=MC2; mass and energy are equivalent; the speed of light in a vacuum is equal for all observers, regardless of their relative motion or of the motion of the source of light
Alfred Wegener
1900s plate tectonics and moving continents
Antoine Lavoisier and John Dalton
1700-1800s develop chemistry as a distinct science; describe atomic and elemental nature of matter and bonds
Marie and Pierre Curie, Ernest Rutherford, Enrico Fermi
discover and experiment with the radioactive nature of some elements resulting in the development of nuclear power and weapons
Charles Darwin
1809-1882 Origin of Species - developed the mechanism for evolution of species as natural selection
Gregor Mendel
1822-1884 advanced the understanding of inheritance (work with pea plants, etc)
James Watson and Francis Crick
1950s understanding of molecular genetics and DNA (double helix structure)
Louis Pasteur
1822-1895 discovered connection of "germs" with fermentation and disease and developed pasteurization process (sanitation)
Mathias Schleiden and Theodore Schwann
scientists that who developed the cell theory
Antoine van Leeuwenhoek
first observed tiny organisms using a microscope (called them
'animalcules')
Robert Hooke
the first to use the term "cells" when he observed cell walls of dead cork under a light microscope