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Basic Principles of Science Biology Praxis II


350BCE Earth-centered (geocentric) universe


140CE mathematical model of geocentric universe with spherical orbits


1530CE Earth spinning on its axis; sun-centered (heliocentric) universe


1564-1642 invented telescope; used investigative inquiry methods; confirmed heliocentric model; discovered details about moon, sun, and planets


1571-1630 proposed mathematical model for elliptical heliocentric orbits of planetary motion with varying speeds

Isaac Newton

1643-1727 Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy - explained the 3 laws of motion

Newton's first law of motion

Law of inertia (things at rest stay at rest, things in motion stay in motion)

Newton's second law of motion

Law of acceleration on force and mass (F=MA)

Newton's third law of motion

Law of action and reaction (every action has an equal and opposite reaction)

Newton's law of universal gravitation

every point mass in the universe attracts every other point mass with a force that is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.

Charles Lyell

1797-1875 Principles of Geography - earth is older than previously thought, set stage for ideas of natural selection later proposed by Darwin; considered rock and sediment layering patterns and fossil placement

Albert Einstein

1879-1955 Theories of Relativity - found that Newton's laws of motion didn't hold true in high velocity (~speed of light) or very small mass; E=MC2; mass and energy are equivalent; the speed of light in a vacuum is equal for all observers, regardless of their relative motion or of the motion of the source of light

Alfred Wegener

1900s plate tectonics and moving continents

Antoine Lavoisier and John Dalton

1700-1800s develop chemistry as a distinct science; describe atomic and elemental nature of matter and bonds

Marie and Pierre Curie, Ernest Rutherford, Enrico Fermi

discover and experiment with the radioactive nature of some elements resulting in the development of nuclear power and weapons

Charles Darwin

1809-1882 Origin of Species - developed the mechanism for evolution of species as natural selection

Gregor Mendel

1822-1884 advanced the understanding of inheritance (work with pea plants, etc)

James Watson and Francis Crick

1950s understanding of molecular genetics and DNA (double helix structure)

Louis Pasteur

1822-1895 discovered connection of "germs" with fermentation and disease and developed pasteurization process (sanitation)

Mathias Schleiden and Theodore Schwann

scientists that who developed the cell theory

Antoine van Leeuwenhoek

first observed tiny organisms using a microscope (called them

Robert Hooke

the first to use the term "cells" when he observed cell walls of dead cork under a light microscope

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