68 terms

APUSH Ch 20: The Progressives

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Terms in this set (...)

muckrakers
first people to articulate new spirit of reform; journalists who directed public attention toward social, economic, and political injustices; reached peak of influence in first decade of twentieth century; inspired Americans to take action
Hull House
first of series of settlement houses created in response to belief that a person's poor fortune was shaped by ENVIRONMENT, not by inherent 'fitness' (as Social Darwinism said); created by Jane Addams in Chicago, 1889; helped create profession of social work
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
radical early advocate for women's suffrage; argued that a woman was "the arbiter of her own destiny" and therefore entitled to equal rights with men
Father John Ryan
Catholic liberal who took to heart Pope's warning that "a small number of very rich men have been able to lay upon...the poor....a yoke little better slavery"; worked to expand scope of Catholic social welfare organizations
Ida Tarbell
one of most notable muckrakers; did enormous study of Standard Oil Trust ("1904; A History of Standard Oil)
Jane Addams
founded Hull House, first settlement house; provided English lessons for immigrants, daycares, and child care classes
Lincoln Steffens
most influential muckraker; reporter for McClure's magazine and author of The Shame of Cities (1904) based on his articles; portrayed machine government and boss rule and exposed "boodlers" across country; helped arouse sentiment of urban political reform with his tone of moral outrage
Settlement Houses
urban reform institutions; staffed by young, unmarried college women from the educated middle class (considered "appropriate"); sought to help immigrant families adapt to America; avoided condescension and moral disapproval, embracing belief that middle-class Americans had responsibility to teach immigrants how to live like middle-class
Social Gospel
impose that became powerful movement within American Protestantism; advocated social justice; believed in egalitarian society and support for poor and oppressed people
Professional Associations
organizations (e.g., American Medical Association, National Association of Manufacturers) formed to establish standards in middle-class professions to secure their position in society, lend prestige to job, exclude "undesirables", and to keep demand high; required qualification exams and other selective methods
National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA)
women's suffrage organization; led by Anna Howard Shaw and Carrie Chapman Catt; helped suffragists become better organized and more politically sophisticated than their opponents, leading to more victories that earlier
Alice Paul
Head of the National Woman's party; campaigned for an equal rights amendment to the Constitution; opposed legislation protecting women workers because such laws implied women's inferiority; believed 19th amendment insufficient to protect women's rights
municipal reforms
reforms proposed by middle-class progressives at city level against bosses and political machines; Commission Plan (replacement of mayor and council by an elected, non-partisan commission); City-Manager Plan (elected officials hired outside expert [professional engineer or business manager] to take charge of city government, supposedly remaining uncorrupted by politics)
referendum
state-level method of direct legislation that gives voters a chance to approve or disapprove proposed legislation or a proposed constitutional ; first put forth by Populists to return power to the People; other methods included initiative (allowed reformers to circumvent state legislation), direct primary election, and recall (right to remove public official from office)
Robert La Follette
most celebrated state-level reformer; governor of Wisconsin; helped progressives win approval of direct primaries, initiatives, and referendums; regulated railroads and utilities; instituted graduated taxes; passed laws regulating workplace and worker compensations; used personal magnetism to widen public awareness of progressive goals
NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People)
organization created through Niagara Movement and white progressives; led drive for equal rights among races; won Guinn v. United States by declaring that the grandfather clause in Oklahoma was unconstitutional; women Buchanan v. Worley by striking down a Kentucky law requiring residential segregation; nation's leading black organization
Prohibition
part of temperance movement (advocated for by groups like Women's Christian Temperance Union); passed through 18th Amendment in 1917 to establish national law making the buying, selling, and consumption of alcohol illegal; not approved by immigrants
IWW (Industrial Workers of the World)
also known as Wobblies; radical, Socialist labor union under leadership of William "Big Bill" Haywood; advocated single union for all workers and abolition of "wage slave" system; rejected political action in favor of strike; popular in West b/c championed cause of unskilled workers
Eugene V. Debs
presidential candidate for growing Socialist Party of America
Eugenics
control of mating to ensure that "defective" genes of troublesome individuals will not be passed on to future generations; prevalent in US against immigrants, criminals, and other "unfit" peoples (people like Madison Grant warned against "racial mongrelization" of the American race)
Bad Trusts
distinction progressives believed government should make; trusts that took advantage of workers and cheated the public by eliminating competition
Good Trusts
distinction progressives believed government should make; trusts that did not abuse their power and contributed to economic growth
Louis Brandeis
major figure in progressive movement; worked unpaid for many public causes; first Jew to ever be nominated to Supreme Court (nominated by Woodrow Wilson)
Theodore Roosevelt
very beloved "accidental" President (seen as 'wild man'; became idol); champion of cautious, moderate reform (believed reform was vehicle for protecting US against radical changes); allied self with progressives to regulate, but not destroy, trusts; broke up Northern Securities Company; forced strike by United Mine Workers to cooperate; boasted about "square deal" where he supported conservatives and progressives alike; began federal conservation of land (national parks and forests)
Interstate Commerce Act
1887; early effort to regulate railroad influence; Roosevelt asked congress for legislation (Hepburn Act) to increase gov's power to oversee railroad rates; in name of progressives, but very cautious and satisfied few
Gifford Pinchot
first chief of the US Forest Service; advocated managing resources for multiple use using principles of sustainable yield
Pure Food and Drug Act
passed by Congress under Roosevelt's pressuring; partially result of muckraking; restricted sale of dangerous and ineffective medicines; in part with Meat Inspection Act, which helped eliminate food-borne illness
Upton Sinclair
muckraker who wrote The Jungle, influencing Roosevelt's action on improving and regulating food and drug industry conditions
Newlands Act
Congressional response to Theodore Roosevelt in 1902; authorized federal funds from public land sales to pay for irrigation and land development projects, mainly in dry Western states
Sierra Club
America's oldest and largest grassroots environmental organization founded in 1892 in San Fransisco; fist President was John Muir; pushed by wealthy b/c they wanted to conserve the nature (despite all the land the already own and "corrupted") for later generations
Hetch Hetchy
1906 controversy in conservation movement; conflict between need for water in San Francisco after great fire and desire to preserve spectacular canyon in Yosemite; ended with canyon being dammed up to create reservoir; setback for naturalists
John Muir
(1838-1914) Naturalist who believed the wilderness should be preserved in its natural state; ally of Theodore Roosevelt; largely responsible for the creation of Yosemite National Park in California; greatly angered over Hetch Hetchy
Yellowstone
first national park; established under Theodore Roosevelt
Panic of 1907
serious economic recession during Theodore Roosevelt's presidency; economic policies blamed for disaster; led Pres. to assure J. P. Morgan that he would not break up U.S. Steel's purchase of Tennessee Coal and Iron Company stocks; panic soon subsided afterwards
New Nationalism
Roosevelt's progressive political policy that favored heavy government intervention in order to assure social justice
New Freedom
approach to WWI favored by Southern and Midwestern Democrats; stated that economic and political preparation for World War I should be done in a decentralized manner to prevent too much power falling into the hands of the federal government; at first favored by President Woodrow Wilson; federal agencies later established to organize mobilization
Woodrow Wilson
preeminent Democratic candidate in election against Taft and Roosevelt; "scholar as President" (only President to ever have PhD; had been president of Princeton); substantially lowered protective tariff through Underwood-Simmons Tariff; signed Federal Reserve Act and Clayton Anti-Trust Act; supported federal Keating-Owen Act regulating child labor (expanded importance to Congress' power to regulate interstate commerce); reluctantly reflected public opinion by becoming militarily involved in WWI
Clayton Antitrust Bill
signed but not enforced by Woodrow Wilson; allowed breakup of trusts; weakened by conservative opposition
Federal Reserve Act
1913; established the Federal System to regulate banking structure of US; greatly approved by Woodrow Wilson; improved public confidence in the banking system
progressivism
movement that believed in the idea of progress, that society was capable of improvements, and that continued growth/advancement was the nation's destiny; believed doctrines of laissez fair and Social Darwinism were not sufficient; direct intervention was essential
antimonopoly
powerful spirit in progressive reform; fear of concentrated power and urge to limit and disperse authority and wealthy; appealed to workers, farmers, and some middle-class
faith in knowledge
characteristic of progressive reform; belief in possibilities of applying to society principles of natural and social sciences
Salvation Army
Christian social welfare organization that started in England but migrated to US as part of Social Gospel ideas; offered material and spiritual aid to urban poor
Walter Rauschenbusch
Protestant theologian who published series of influential discourses on possibilities for human salvation through Christian reform; rejected 'Survival of the Fittest'
Rerum Novarum
published by Pope Leo XIII; justification for Catholic 'crusade' to reform
Thorstein Veblen
social scientist who proposed new economic system whereby power would reside in hands of highly-trained engineers; first to define conspicuous consumption in economics
female-dominated professions
settlement houses/social work, nursing, and, most importantly, teaching (90% of professionals)
(roles of women in reform causes)
caused by "phenomenon of new woman";
Boston Marriages
single women's long-term relationships with other women (some quietly romantic); part of New Woman phenomenon
New Woman
product of social and economic changes; fewer children in house due to rise of school and longer lives + technological innovations like running water meant women were no longer tied to the household and could get jobs; some educated women rejected marriage
General Federation of Women's Clubs
start of cultural organizations that provided intellectual outlet from middle and upper class women; became concerned with contributing to social betterment; clubs allowed women to define a space for themselves in public sphere without challenging existing order
Women's Trade Union League
women's club founded in 1903; committed to persuading women to join unions; held strikes, marched on picket lines, and bailed striking women out of jail
National Association of Colored Women
club for African-American women excluded from GFWC; took positions on lynching and segregation
Charlotte Perkins Gilman
committed feminist; wrote Women and Economics; argued that traditional gender roles were exploitative and obsolete
(19th Century rationale for women's suffrage)
did not challenge main social order; insisted that women, by occupying a separate sphere, deserved suffrage so as to bring their calming sensitivities into the world of war-like male aggression politics; if "base" groups like blacks and immigrants were allowed vote, women should be too
(early rational for women's suffrage)
advocated by Elizabeth Cady Stanton; argued that women deserved same "natural rights" as man (challenge to social order and idea that won; made women's suffrage cause less effective)
(rationale against women's suffrage)
belief that suffrage led to divorce, promiscuity, and neglecting of children; belief that there was no need for women to vote b/c it would either support or cancel husband's both; separate spheres could not be mixed; against "natural order" of civilization
(attempts to lower partisan and political machine power in cities)
Commission Plan; City-Manager Plan; made election of mayors nonpartisan
Tom Johnson
prominent reform mayor of Cleveland; committed to ending "boss rule"
(reasons for decline of party strength)
secret ballot (party bosses had less influence; illiterate voters could not read ballot; etc.); power centers in "interest groups" replaced political party
Triangle Shirtwaist Fire
March 191; fire in New York factory that trapped young women workers inside locked exit doors; nearly 50 ended up jumping to their death; while 100 died inside the factory; led to the establishment of many factory reforms, including increasing safety precautions for workers after intense public pressure
water
source of dispute in western states that required federal intervention; supported by western progressives
W. E. B. Du Bois
wrote The Souls of Black Folk; launched open attack at Booker T. Washington's proposal to have blacks first gain economic, and then social, equality; insisted blacks accept nothing less than full university education; met at Niagara Falls to launch movement for civil rights
Niagara Movement
named after W. E. B. Du Bois' meeting at Niagara falls; advocated for full civil and educational rights for African-Americans
William Howard Taft
President endorsed by Roosevelt because he pledged to carry on progressive program; fell short of standard Roosevelt set; didn't appoint any Progressives to Cabine and actively pursued anti-trust law suits against promises
Payne-Aldrich Tariff
Signed by Taft in March of 1909 in contrast to campaign promises; was supposed to lower tariff rates but Senator Nelson N. Aldrich of Rhode Island put revisions that raised tariffs; split the Repulican party into progressives (lower tariff) and conservatives (high tariff)
Ballinger-Pinchot Dispute
Dispute between Roosevelt and Taft; Taft's secretary Ballinger wanted to sell acres that Taft's chief forester Pinchot had withdrawn from sale; two argued and Taft supported Ballinger; Pinchot refused to drop the matter; contributed to split of Republican party
Bull Moose Party
name given to President Roosevelt's Progressive Republican party in his third running for President; strong commitment to wide range of progressive causes like additional regulation of industry and trusts, reforms for the government, injury compensation for workers, pensions for elderly and widows with children, and women's suffrage