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Forensic Antro Test I

STUDY
PLAY
how many pds of forensic anthro
3, debating 4th
formative period
1800s-1938; concept of forensic anthro was not established, events included Parkman Murder and Leutgert Muder
parkman murder
event in formative pd where a professor Webster was convicted of murdering Parkman who was a physician. anatomists described bones in the furnace and the biological profile, while dentist IDed dentures he made for Parkman
luetgert murder
accused of killing wife in vat of acid, anthropologist concluded that bones were human and female,
consolidation pd
(1939-1972) people start to see the significance in forensic anthropology and develop material to consult
event that bridged from formative pd to consolidation pd
wilton marion krogman publishes "guide to the ID of human skeletal material"
modern period
(1972-present)
event that bridged from consolidation to modern pd
Ellis Kerley and Clyde Snow establish division in American Academy of Forensic Science for forensic anthropolgy
roles of a forensic anthropologist
-scene recovery, human vs nonhuman, forensic significance, biological profile, trauma analysis, taphonomy
taphonomy
time since death
osteology
study of bone
human skeleton has how many bones
206
characteristics of bone
living, dynamic tissue, responds to environment and stressors, composed of organic and inorganic component
organic composite in bone
collagen
inorganic composite in bone
hydrorapetite
cortical bone is
compact
trabecular bone is
spongy
what part of the bone is the diaphysis
the shaft
what part of the bone is the epiphysis
the cap at the head of the bone
what part of the bone is the metaphysis
flare structure at the end of the diaphysis
where are the growth plates in bones located
btwn the epiphysis and the metaphysis
anatomical position
standing upright with palms forward
superior
towards head, upper cranial
inferior
lower, away from head
anterior
front
ventral
front
posterior
back
dorsal
back
medial
towards the middle
lateral
away from the middle
proximal
towards or nearest the pt of origin
distal
away from or farthest from pt of origin
sagittal plane divides
R + L halves
coronal plane divides
front and back halves
transverse plane divides
top and bottom halves
how many bones does the skull have
28
locate these parts of the skull:
frontal, parietals, temporal, occipital, maxillae, zygomatics, nasals, mandible, sphenoid
cranial skeleton means
the kull
postcranial skeleton means
everything except for the skull
axial skeleton means
the torso and the skull
appendicular
the appendages
sagittal suture
splits the cranium in half
coronal suture is located where
at the crown of the head
lamboid suture
triangular shape at back of the head that separates the occipital and the parietals
squamosal suture
splits temporal and parietal
atlas
uppermost bone of the spinal colomn
foramen mangum
the opening in the rear of the skull through which the spinal chord passes to reach the brain
mastoid process
projection of the temporal bone located behind the ear
nuchal crest
Attachment at the back of the skull for attachment of neck muscles.
supra-orbital ridges
browridges
how many permanent teeth
32
how many deciduous teeth
20
crown of the tooth
part that is visible above the gum
neck of the tooth
where the crown meets the rest of the tooth
root of the tooth
the part of the tooth embedded in the jaw
incisors
flat chisel-like teeth in the front of the mouth
canine teeth
pointed teeth next to the 2nd incisor, aka eye teeth
premolar
aka bicuspids, have two cusps and are next to the canine
molar
rectangular chewing teeth rear of the mouth
dental formula for adults
2:1:2:3
dental formula for children
2:1:2
hardest tissue in the body
enamel
labial
towards lip
buccal
towards cheek
mesial
toward midline
distal
opposite midline
how many cervical vertebrae
7
how many thoracic vertebrae
12
how many lumbar vertebrae
5
how many sacral verebrae
4-6
how many coccygeal vertebrae
3-5
cervical vertebrae
make up the neck, have transverse foramina
thoracic vertebrae
connect to the ribs
transverse foramina
hole for arteries to supply blood to brain
lumbar vertebrae
largest, carry the most weight
sacral and coccygeal
usually 5 sacral, fuse in adulthood to make sacrum
order of vertebrae
cervical->thoracic->lumbar->sacral->coccygeal
os coxa/innominate
pelvis
the bones that fuse to make the pelvis
ilium, ischium, and pubis
parts sternum composed of
connects to the clavicle and ribs, made of manubrium, body, and xiphoid process
how many ribs
12
which ribs are true ribs and why
1-7, because they connect to the sternum
which ribs are false ribs and why
8-10 because they dont articulate with the sternum, only with the cartilage
which ribs are floating ribs and why
11-12 because there is no connection at all to the sternum or cartilage
be able to locate:
sternum, clavicle, scapula, humerus, radius, ulna, femur, carpals, metacarpals, finger phalanges, patella, tibia, fibula, tarsals, metatarsals, foot phalanges
what three main questions are asked when trying to establish forensic significance
bone vs nonbone, human vs nonhuman, contemporary or noncontemporary
how to establish bone vs nonbone
need trained osteologists, determination based on microscopy/elemental composition
how to establish human vs nonhuman
know your osteology-> histological differences, muturity differences, and architectural/morphological differences
histology
study of microscopic structures of tissues, important in fragmentary remains
histological differences in animals vs humans
animals have plexiform bone (banding), humans have haversian bone (osteons)
diffrences between animal and human skulls
humans have larger braincase, reduced nose, enclosed orbit, reduced canines, and fused mandibles
differences btwn epiphyses and diaphyses in humans and animals
in animals they are small and unfused, in humans they are small and fused
evidences of contemporary state of preservation
yellowish white in color, smooth in texture, heavier because of hydration, little fragmentation, not as fragile, more soft tissue
other evidence of contemp vs noncomtemp
body modification, personal belongings, conditions of interment
differences between forensically significant skull and medical specimen?
medical specimens are bleached, varnished, articulated with hardware, polished, have odd sectioning of bone
differences btwn trophy skulls and forensiccally significant ones
commemorative mark/alteration
religious skulls have
tribal art, power,
differences btwn males and females
f apprx 92% size of m, different architecture bc of childbirth
properties of male pelvis
tall and narrow, large and rugges, heart shaped, narrow subpubic angle, pubic bone more triangular, tighter sciatic notch
properties of female pelvis
short and wide, small and gracile, oral inlet, wide subpubic angle, pubic bone more rectangular, wider sciatic notch, preauricular sulcus
preauricular sulcus
a groove under the sciatic notch
sex differences in sacrum
more curves for males, females have flatter and larger base wing index
sex differences in skull
male: sloping in frontal bone, long and wide mastoid process, square mandible, pronounced brow ridge, high and thick zygomatics, marked and rough nuchal lines.....females: vertical frontal bone, short and narrow mastoid process, rounded mandible, smooth browridge, smooth nuchal lines
problems in sex estimation
large range in human variation and mechanisms and processes that produce variation
how do forensic anthrops deal with problems in sex estimation
familiar with range of human variation, experience, skeletal collections
sex estimation for subadults
elevated auricular surface, females mature faster
bergmanns rule
larger animals have a lower SA:Vol ration so that they radiate less body heat
allens rule
shorter appendages are favored in cold climates because they disspate less heat
ancestry
lineage composing line of genetic dessent
race
georgraphically and culturally determined collegection who share commmon gene groups
geographic variation
there have never been any pure races
four main groups of ancestry in US
asian/native american, european, african, "hispanic"
most evident biological difference in ancestry are differences in the
cranium
ancestry-old school, typology
evaluate expected characteristics
ancestry-new school, frequency values
assess "character states" of a defined trait and statistically evaluate frequency of states in ancestral groups
nasal characteristics of asians (root, bridge, spine, lower border, width)
low ridged root, low bridge, small spine, flat and sharp lower border, medium width
facial traits of asians (profile, shape, eye orbits, lower eye border)
medium profile, wide face, rounded eye orbits, projecting lower eye border
vault traits of asians (browridges, muscle marks, vault sutures, postbregma)
small, smooth, complex, straight
nasal characteristics of blacks (root, bridge, spine, lower border, width)
low and rounded, low, small, guttered, wide
facial traits of blacks )profile, shape, eye orbits, lower eye border)
projecting, narrow, rectangular, receding
vault traits of blacks (browridges, muscle marks, vault sutures, postbregma)
small, smooth, simple, depressed
jaw and dental traits of asians (jaw, palatal shape, upper incisors)
large, elliptical, shoveled
jaw and dental traits of blacks (jaw, palatal shape, upper incisors)
large, hyperbolic, spatulate
nasal characteristics of whites (root, bridge, spine, lower border, width)
high and narrow, high, pronounced, sharp sill, narrow
facial traits of whites (profile, shape, eye orbits, lower eye border)
straight, narrow, angular, receding
vault traits of whites (browridges, muscle marks, vault sutures, postbregma)
heavy, rugged, simple, straight
jaws and dental traits of whites (jaw, palatal shape, upper incisors)
small, parabolic, spatulate
advantages of metric methods
less experience needed, objective, maximizes variable variation, results comfirm visual impressions
disadvantages of metric methods
know how to measure correctly, large refrence samples needed, difficult to use on fragmentary remains
two categories of age are
adult and subadult
differences between determining adult vs subadult age
different techniques used, different body parts used
determining age in subadults
dental charts-teeth develop from the crown down, bone caps-epiphyses) not yet formed, most bones fuse during teen years,
last bone to fuse
medial clavicle (25)
main indicators of adult age estimation
pubic symphyis, auricular surface, sternal rib ends, cranial sutures, palatal sutures, and dental wear
pubic symphysis
where the pubic bones at the front are,
bone modeling
developmental
bone remondeling
growth, maintenence and repair
biomechanics
different for different bones
which bones should you use when using histological age estimation
6th rib or anterior femur
problems with histological age estimation
diagenetic changes, variation between elements, hormones and bone health, destructive methods, labor intensive methods