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111 terms

Psychology ch.01-02

STUDY
PLAY
psychology
scientific study of behavior and mental processes
goals of psychology
describe
explain
predict
control behavior and mental processes
theory
propose reasons of relationships
derive explanations
make predictions
Research
pure research
applied research
aristotle
peri psyches
Democritus
, Greek philosopher. He developed the atomic theory originated by his teacher Leucippus that explained natural phenomena in terms of the arrangement and rearrangement of atoms moving in a void.
socrates
introspection
GUSTAV THEODOR FECHNER
elements of Psychophysics (1860)
Wilhelm wundt
structuralism
Structuralism
breaks conscious experiences into
objective sensations(sight,taste) and
subjective feelings (emotional responses,will)
mental images( memories,dreams)
mind functions by combining objective and subjective elements of experience
functionalism
william james
functionalism
focused on behavior in addition to mind and consciousness
used direct observations to supplement introspection
influenced by Darwins theory of evolution
behavioralism
johns broadus watson
-focuses on learning observable(measurable) behavior
B.F skinner
learned behavior is behavior that is reinforced
Gestalt psychology
max wertheimer,kurt koffka, Wolfgang Kohler
focused on perception and its influence on thinking and problem solving
perception are more than sum of their parts
active and purposeful
insight learning
the importance of CONTEXT
psychoanalysis
Sigmund freud
-influence of unconscious motives and conflicts
theory of personality
therapy
cognitive perspective
Concerned with ways we mentally represent the world and process information
Memory, perceptions, learning, problem solving, decision making, language, planning
Humanistic — Existential Perspective
Humanism stresses human capacity for self- fulfillment
Role of consciousness, self-awareness, decision making
Existentialism stresses free choice and personal responsibility
Carl Rogers
Abraham Maslow
Psychodynamic Perspective
Neoanalysts focus more on conscious choice and self-direction then psychoanalysis
Karen Horney
Erik Erikson
Perspective on Learning
Social Cognitive
People modify and create their environment
Observation
sociocultural perspective
Focuses on the influence of differences among people on behavior and mental processes
Ethnicity, gender, culture, socioeconomic status
diversity within psychology
ethnicity
Kenneth Clark and Mamie Phipps Clark
Jorge Sanchez
Lillian Comas Diaz
Richard Suinn
(diversity within psy)Gender
Mary Whiton Calkins
Mary Salter Ainsworth
Elizabeth Loftus
principles of critical thinking
Be skeptical
Insist on evidence
Examine definitions of terms
Examine the assumptions or premises of arguments
Be cautious in drawing conclusions from evidenceConsider alternative interpretations of research evidence
Do not oversimplify
Do not overgeneralize
Apply critical thinking to all areas of life
scientific method
Formulate a research question
State the hypothesis
Test the hypothesis
Draw conclusions based on findings
Publish research
Replicate study
samples
Segment of population
population
Entire group targeted for study
Representative samples allow generalization of findings
random sample
Each member of population has equal chance of selection
Stratified sample
Subgroups are represented proportionally
Volunteer bias
Bias represented by studying people who volunteer to participate
stratified sample
Subgroups are represented proportionally
volunteer bias
studying people who volunteer to participate
case study
Gather information about individuals or small groups
Sometimes used to investigate rarities
survey
Used to collect information that cannot be observed directly
naturalistic observation
Observe subjects in their natural environment
Unobtrusive measure
correlation
Mathematical method of determining a relationship between variables
Correlation
Expresses strength and direction of relationship between variables
Does not prove cause and effect
experimental method
Demonstrates cause and effect through scientific method
Independent variable
Dependent variable
Experimental Method
Experimental groups
Control groups
Placebos
Blind
Double-blind study
ethics of research with humans
Ethical review committee and ethical standards
Promote individual dignity, human welfare and scientific integrity
Ensure no harm will come to subjects
Informed consent
Confidentiality
Deception
Debriefing
ethics of research on animals
cannot be carried out with humans
Animals may be harmed, only when:
there is no alternative, and
benefits of the research justify the harm
neuron
receive and pass messages
cell body,dendrites,axon,axon terminals
glial cells
nourish and insulate neurons
direct growth of neurons
remove waste products
afferent neurons
transmit messages from sensory receptors to the spinal cord and brain
efferent neurons
transmit messages from brain or spinal cord to muscles and gland
neural impulse
electrochemical messages that travel within neurons
resting potential
neuron is not responding to other neurons
action potential
conduction of neural impulse along axon
firing
conduction of neural impulse along the length of a neuron
threshold
incoming messages reach a strength at which neuron will fire
all-or-none principle
every time a neuron fires, it transmits a impulse of same strength
refractory period
period of recovery ,time between firings
synapses
fluid filled gap( synaptic cleft) b/w
axon terminal from transmitting neuron,and dendrite of receiving neuron
neurotransmitters
chemical substance that communicate from one neuron to another
synaptic vesicles
contain neurotransmitters in the axon terminals
receptor site
on dendrite of receiving neuron
reuptake
Neurotransmitters reabsorbe
Excitatory neurons
Cause other neurons to fire
Inhibitory neurons
Prevent other neurons from firing
Acetylcholine (ACh)
Controls muscle contractions
Paralysis
Prevalent in hippocampus
Memory
Alzheimer's disease
Dopamine
Pleasure, voluntary movement, learning, memory
Parkinson's disease
Schizophrenia
Norepinephrine
Excitatory neurotransmitter
Accelerates heart rate, affects eating, linked to activity levels, learning and remembering
Mood disorders, depression, bipolar disorder
Serotonin
Emotional arousal and sleep
Eating disorders, alcoholism, depression, aggression, insomnia
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)
Inhibitory may help relax anxiety reactions
Depression
Endorphins
Occur naturally within the brain and bloodstream
Inhibit pain
May be connected to indifference to pain
Runner's high
Central Nervous System
Brain and spinal cord
Peripheral Nervous System
Sensory (afferent) and motor (efferent) neurons
Kinship Studies
Focus on presence of traits and behavior patterns in people who are, or are not related biologically
Twin studies
Monozygotic twins
Dizygotic twins
Adoption studies
Chromosomes
Receive 23 chromosomes from father's sperm and 23 chromosomes from mother's egg cell
23rd pair of chromosomes are sex chromosomes
XX - female
XY - male
Down syndrome
Chromosomal abnormality
Phenotype
Actual appearance, based on genotype and environmental influences (nature and nurture)
Genotype
Individual's genetic makeup (nature)
Adrenal Glands
Located above the kidneys
Cortical steroids
increase resistance to stress
promote muscle development
Epinephrine and norepinephrine
Helps arouse body in threatening situations
Pineal Gland
Secretes melatonin
Helps regulate sleep-wake cycle
May affect onset of puberty
Genes and Chromosomes
Genes regulate development of specific traits
Some traits are determined by one gene
Other traits are polygenic
gene
Basic unit of heredity
Chromosomes
Structure within cell nucleus that carry genes
Humans have 46 chromosomes (23 pairs)
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
Substance that forms chromosomes
Double helix - contains genetic code
Nucleotides - A and T, C and G
heredity
Transmission of traits from parent to offspring, based on genes
Genetics
Subfield of biology that studies heredity
Behavioral Genetics
Focuses on contributions of genes to behavior
Evolutionary Psychology
Ways in which adaptation and natural selection are connected with behavior and mental processes
Behavior patterns evolve and can be transmitted genetically from generation to generation
Instinctive or species specific behaviors
Instinct
Stereotyped patterns of behavior that are triggered in a specific situation
Species-specific
Resists modification, not learned
Darwin's Theory of Evolution
Struggle for existence
Competition for same resources
Natural selection
Adaptive genetic variations aid in survival
Mutations
Sudden changes in genes
Thyroid gland
Produces thyroxin
Affects body's metabolism
Hypothyroidism
Hyperthyroidism
Cretinism
Testosterone
produced by testes (smaller amounts from adrenal gland)
male sex characteristics
Estrogen and progesterone
produced by ovaries (smaller amounts from testes)
female sex characteristics
Steroids
increase muscle mass,
heighten resistance to stress,
increase body's energy supply
Anabolic steroids
enhance athletic prowess
connected with self-confidence, aggressiveness, memory function
The Endocrine Glands
Pituitary and the Hypothalamus
Pituitary gland
Lies below hypothalamus
Labeled as "master gland"
Hormones secreted by pituitary gland
Hypothalamus regulates pituitary gland activity
spinal cord
Transmits messages from sensory receptors to the brain and from the brain to muscle and glands
Spinal Reflex
Simple, unlearned response to stimulus
Gray matter - nonmyelinated
White matter - myelinated
Endocrine System
Comprised of ductless glands that release hormones into the bloodstream
Hormones
Regulate growth, metabolism and some behaviors
Maintain steady bodily states
Split-Brain Experiments
Severe cases of epilepsy may require split-brain operations
Examples of "two brain" phenomenon
Caused by inability of one hemisphere to communicate with the other
Handedness
Left-handed
Somewhat greater-than-average probability of language problems and certain health problems
More likely than right-handed people in gifted artists, musicians, and mathematicians
Origins of handedness
Genetics
Left Brain, Right Brain
Left-brained
Logical and intellectual
Right-brained
Intuitive, creative and emotional
Hemispheres do not act independently
Functions overlap and they respond simultaneously
Language Functions
Broca's Area
Frontal Lobe
Production of speech
Broca's aphasia
Understand language but speak slowly and laboriously
Language Functions
Wernicke's Area
Temporal Lobe
Wernicke's aphasia
Impairs ability to comprehend speech and think of words to express own thoughts
Angular Gyrus
Translates visual into auditory information
Damage impairs reading ability
Language Functions
Two hemispheres of the brain mirror and differ
Left hemisphere contains language functions for nearly all people
If damaged before age 13, speech functions would transfer to right hemisphere
Two key language areas
Broca's area and Wernicke's area
Damage in either causes aphasia
Thinking, Language, and the Cortex
Association areas
Not primarily involved in sensation or motor activity
Responsible for learning, thought, memory and language
Association areas in frontal lobe
Responsible for executive functions
The Cerebral Cortex
Outer layer of cerebrum
Two Hemispheres
Four Lobes
Frontal, Parietal, Temporal and Occipital
The Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex
frontal lobe
Motor Cortex
Parietal Lobe
Somatosensory Cortex
Temporal Lobe
Hearing and Auditory functions
Occipital Lobe
Vision
Corpus Callosum
Connects two hemispheres
hindbrain
Medulla
Pons
Cerebellum
"Little brain"
Limbic System
Amygdala, hippocampus and parts of hypothalamus
Involved in memory and emotion
Reticular Activation System
From hindbrain, ascends through midbrain into lower part of forebrain
Vital to attention, sleep, arousal
(
CAT or CT scan)
Computerized axial tomography
MRI
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Autonomic Nervous System
Regulates glands and muscles of internal organs
Contains sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions
PET scan
Positron emission tomography
fMRI
Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Experimenting with the brain
Assessing damage from trauma and disease
Intentionally damaging parts of a brain
Electrical probes to stimulate parts of the brain
Somatic Nervous System
Sensory and motor neurons
Transmits messages to the brain and purposeful body movements from the brain
sympathetic
Most active during emotional responses
Spend the body's reserves of energy
Electroencephalograph
Measurement of electrical activity - brain waves
Parasympathetic
Most active during processes that restore body's reserve of energy
cerebral cortex
Surface of cerebrum
cerebrum
Responsible for thinking and language
Hypothalamus
Regulates body temperature, motivation and emotion
Hunger, thirst, sexual behavior, caring for offspring, aggression
thalamus
Relay station for sensory stimulation
forebrain
thalamus & hypothalamus