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These are words to know for the 5th Grade FCAT science.


a characteristic of an organism that increases its chance of survival in its environment


the layers of gas that surround Earth, other planets, or stars


the smallest unit of a chemical element that can still retain the properties of that element


the imaginary line on which an object rotates


an animal or plant that consumes or obtains nutrients from animals

change of state

a physical change that occurs when matter changes to another state (i.e., liquid, gas, or solid)

chemical change

a reaction or a change in a substance produced by chemical means that results in producing a different chemical


all the populations of organisms belonging to different species and sharing the same geographical area


the process of changing from a gas (i.e., water vapor) to a liquid (i.e., dew); the act of making more dense or compact


controlled use and/or maintenance of natural resources; various efforts to preserve or protect natural resources efforts to preserve or protect natural resources


a star pattern identified and named as a definite group; usually thought of as forming certain shapes or figures in a specific region of the sky


an organism that feeds on other organisms for food


any organism that feeds or obtains nutrients by breaking down organic matter from dead organisms


concentration of matter of an object; number of individuals in the same species that live in a given area; the mass per unit volume of a substance in a given area


the shaking of the ground caused by a sudden release of energy in Earth's crust


an integrated unit of a biological community, its physical environment, and interactions


a substance that cannot be reduced to a simpler substance by chemical means


a quantity that describes the capacity to do work

energy pyramid

a pyramidal diagram that compares the amount of energy available at each position, or level, in the feeding order

energy transfer

a change of energy from one form to another


the wearing away of Earth's surface by the breakdown and transportation of rock and soil


the process by which a liquid is converted to its vapor phase by heating the liquid


a procedure that is carried out and repeated under controlled conditions in order to discover, demonstrate, or test a hypothesis; includes all components of the scientific method

food chain

transfer of energy through various stages as a result of feeding patterns of a series of organisms food web (food cycle) the interconnected feeding relationships in a food chain found in a

dependent variable

factor being measured or observed in an experiment


the dropping or settling of eroded materials

food web (food cycle)

the interconnected feeding relationships in a food chain found in a particular place and time


a quality that tends to produce movement or acceleration of a body in the direction of its application; a push or pull


a whole or part of a plant or animal that has been preserved in sedimentary rock


A force that acts between two touching objects and that opposes motion


the pivot point of a lever


a large collection of stars, gases, and dust that are part of the universe bound together by gravitational forces


one of the fundamental states of matter in which the molecules do not have a fixed volume or shape


The force of attraction between any two objects.


a place in an ecosystem where an organism normally lives


a form of energy resulting from the temperature difference between a system and its surroundings


an animal that feeds on plants

igneous rock

a type of rock that forms from molten or partly molten material that cools and hardens

inclined plane

a type of simple machine; a slanted surface that makes it easier to move a mass from a lower point to a higher point


the property of a body, due to its mass, that causes it to resist any change in its motion unless overcome by a force


a procedure that is carried out in order to observe a response caused by a stimulus; not a complete experiment

kinetic energy

the energy possessed by a body because of its motion


a type of simple machine; consists of a rigid bar that pivots about a fulcrum, used to transmit and enhance power or motion

life cycle

the entire sequence of events in an organism's growth and development


electromagnetic radiation that lies within the visible range


one of the fundamental states of matter with a definite volume but no definite shape


having the property of attracting iron and certain other materials by virtue of a surrounding field of force


a solid, liquid, or gas that possesses inertia and is capable of occupying space

metamorphic rock

a type of rock that forms from existing rock because of extreme changes caused by heat, pressure, or chemical environments


relating to an object too small to be visible without the use of a microscope


the product of a thorough blending of two or more substances, not chemically combined


a natural satellite that revolves around a planet

moon phase

a phrase that indicates the fraction of the Moon's disc that is illuminated (as seen from Earth); the eight moon phases (in order)new moon, waxing crescent, first quarter, waxing gibbous, full moon, waning gibbous, last quarter, waning crescent

nonrenewable resource

a resource that can only be replenished over millions of years


a structure containing different tissues that are organized to carry out a specific function of the body (e.g., heart, lungs, brain, etc.)


any living plant, animal, or fungus that maintains various vital processes necessary for life


a chemical process by which plants trap light energy to convert carbon dioxide and water into carbohydrates (sugars)

physical change

a reaction; a change in matter from one form to another, without forming new substances


a large body in space that orbits a star and does not produce light of its own


any alteration of the natural environment producing a condition harmful to living organisms; may occur naturally or as a result of human activities


a group of organisms of the same species living in a specific geographical area

potential energy

the energy an object has because of its position or structure; stored energy


an organism that preys on and consumes animals; usually an animal


an organism caught or hunted for food by another organism


an organism that makes its own food from the environment; usually a green plant


unicellular organisms belonging to the kingdom Protista


a type of simple machine; a circular lever, usually a wheel with a groove where a rope can be placed and used to change the direction of a force


the bouncing off or turning back of light, sound, or heat from a surface


a change in the direction of a wave that occurs as it passes from one medium to another of different density

renewable resource

a resource that is replaced or restored, as it is used, by natural processes in a reasonable amount of time


any material that can be used to satisfy a need

scientific method

a plan of inquiry that uses science process skills as tools to gather,organize, analyze, and communicate information

sedimentary rock

rock formed from layers of sediment that overlay and squeeze together or are chemically combined

solar system

a star and all the planets and other bodies that orbit it; the region in space where these bodies move


having a definite shape and a definite volume; one of the fundamental states of matter


a mixture of two or more substances uniformly dispersed throughout a single phase


a large, gaseous, self-luminous body held together by gravity and powered by thermonuclear reactions


the closest star to Earth and the center of our solar system


a set of objects, organisms, or different parts acting to form a whole


similar cells acting to perform a specific function; four basic types of tissue are muscle, connective, nerve, and epidermal


the surface, shape, and composition of a land area


the total sum of all matter and energy that exists


a vent or fissure in Earth's surface through which magma and its associated materials are expelled; generally a mountain-like structure


a measure of the amount of space an object takes up

water cycle

The path water takes as it is being cycled through the environment, including condensation, evaporation, and precipitation.


the natural processes that break down and change rock into soil,sand, and other materials

wheel and axle

a type of simple machine; a circular frame or disk revolving around a central axis


A material that readily allows electric charges to pass through it and therefor carries electricity well.


an ecological community, together with its environment, functioning as a unit

fossil fuels

the remains of animal or plant life from past geologic ages that are now in a form suitable for use as a fuel (e.g., oil, coal, or natural gas)


the number of cycles or waves per unit time

independent variable

the factor that is changed in an experiment in order to study changes in the dependent variable


the amount of matter an object contains

plate tectonics

theory of global dynamics in which Earth's crust is divided into a smaller number of large, rigid plates whose movements cause seismic activity along their borders


a type of simple machine that consists of an inclined plane wrapped around a cylinder

thermal energy

internal energy found by adding the kinetic energy of particles making up a substance


an event, condition, or factor that can be changed or controlled in order to study or test a hypothesis in a scientific experiment


a type of simple machine that consists of an inclined plane used to separate two objects


a substance made up of at least two different elements held together by chemical bonds that can only be broken down into elements by chemical processes


the smallest unit of matter of a substance that retains all the physical and chemical properties of that substance; consists of a single atom or a group of atoms bonded together

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