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100 terms

5th Grade FCAT Science

These are words to know for the 5th Grade FCAT science.
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adaptation
a characteristic of an organism that increases its chance of survival in its environment
atmosphere
the layers of gas that surround Earth, other planets, or stars
atom
the smallest unit of a chemical element that can still retain the properties of that element
axis
the imaginary line on which an object rotates
carnivore
an animal or plant that consumes or obtains nutrients from animals
change of state
a physical change that occurs when matter changes to another state (i.e., liquid, gas, or solid)
chemical change
a reaction or a change in a substance produced by chemical means that results in producing a different chemical
community
all the populations of organisms belonging to different species and sharing the same geographical area
condensation
the process of changing from a gas (i.e., water vapor) to a liquid (i.e., dew); the act of making more dense or compact
conservation
controlled use and/or maintenance of natural resources; various efforts to preserve or protect natural resources efforts to preserve or protect natural resources
constellation
a star pattern identified and named as a definite group; usually thought of as forming certain shapes or figures in a specific region of the sky
consumer
an organism that feeds on other organisms for food
decomposer
any organism that feeds or obtains nutrients by breaking down organic matter from dead organisms
density
concentration of matter of an object; number of individuals in the same species that live in a given area; the mass per unit volume of a substance in a given area
earthquake
the shaking of the ground caused by a sudden release of energy in Earth's crust
ecosystem
an integrated unit of a biological community, its physical environment, and interactions
element
a substance that cannot be reduced to a simpler substance by chemical means
energy
a quantity that describes the capacity to do work
energy pyramid
a pyramidal diagram that compares the amount of energy available at each position, or level, in the feeding order
energy transfer
a change of energy from one form to another
erosion
the wearing away of Earth's surface by the breakdown and transportation of rock and soil
evaporation
the process by which a liquid is converted to its vapor phase by heating the liquid
experiment
a procedure that is carried out and repeated under controlled conditions in order to discover, demonstrate, or test a hypothesis; includes all components of the scientific method
food chain
transfer of energy through various stages as a result of feeding patterns of a series of organisms food web (food cycle) the interconnected feeding relationships in a food chain found in a
dependent variable
factor being measured or observed in an experiment
deposition
the dropping or settling of eroded materials
food web (food cycle)
the interconnected feeding relationships in a food chain found in a particular place and time
force
a quality that tends to produce movement or acceleration of a body in the direction of its application; a push or pull
fossil
a whole or part of a plant or animal that has been preserved in sedimentary rock
friction
A force that acts between two touching objects and that opposes motion
fulcrum
the pivot point of a lever
galaxy
a large collection of stars, gases, and dust that are part of the universe bound together by gravitational forces
gas
one of the fundamental states of matter in which the molecules do not have a fixed volume or shape
gravity
The force of attraction between any two objects.
habitat
a place in an ecosystem where an organism normally lives
heat
a form of energy resulting from the temperature difference between a system and its surroundings
herbivore
an animal that feeds on plants
igneous rock
a type of rock that forms from molten or partly molten material that cools and hardens
inclined plane
a type of simple machine; a slanted surface that makes it easier to move a mass from a lower point to a higher point
inertia
the property of a body, due to its mass, that causes it to resist any change in its motion unless overcome by a force
investigation
a procedure that is carried out in order to observe a response caused by a stimulus; not a complete experiment
kinetic energy
the energy possessed by a body because of its motion
lever
a type of simple machine; consists of a rigid bar that pivots about a fulcrum, used to transmit and enhance power or motion
life cycle
the entire sequence of events in an organism's growth and development
light
electromagnetic radiation that lies within the visible range
liquid
one of the fundamental states of matter with a definite volume but no definite shape
magnetic
having the property of attracting iron and certain other materials by virtue of a surrounding field of force
matter
a solid, liquid, or gas that possesses inertia and is capable of occupying space
metamorphic rock
a type of rock that forms from existing rock because of extreme changes caused by heat, pressure, or chemical environments
microscopic
relating to an object too small to be visible without the use of a microscope
mixture
the product of a thorough blending of two or more substances, not chemically combined
moon
a natural satellite that revolves around a planet
moon phase
a phrase that indicates the fraction of the Moon's disc that is illuminated (as seen from Earth); the eight moon phases (in order)new moon, waxing crescent, first quarter, waxing gibbous, full moon, waning gibbous, last quarter, waning crescent
nonrenewable resource
a resource that can only be replenished over millions of years
organ
a structure containing different tissues that are organized to carry out a specific function of the body (e.g., heart, lungs, brain, etc.)
organism
any living plant, animal, or fungus that maintains various vital processes necessary for life
photosynthesis
a chemical process by which plants trap light energy to convert carbon dioxide and water into carbohydrates (sugars)
physical change
a reaction; a change in matter from one form to another, without forming new substances
planet
a large body in space that orbits a star and does not produce light of its own
pollution
any alteration of the natural environment producing a condition harmful to living organisms; may occur naturally or as a result of human activities
population
a group of organisms of the same species living in a specific geographical area
potential energy
the energy an object has because of its position or structure; stored energy
predator
an organism that preys on and consumes animals; usually an animal
prey
an organism caught or hunted for food by another organism
producer
an organism that makes its own food from the environment; usually a green plant
protist
unicellular organisms belonging to the kingdom Protista
pulley
a type of simple machine; a circular lever, usually a wheel with a groove where a rope can be placed and used to change the direction of a force
reflection
the bouncing off or turning back of light, sound, or heat from a surface
refraction
a change in the direction of a wave that occurs as it passes from one medium to another of different density
renewable resource
a resource that is replaced or restored, as it is used, by natural processes in a reasonable amount of time
resource
any material that can be used to satisfy a need
scientific method
a plan of inquiry that uses science process skills as tools to gather,organize, analyze, and communicate information
sedimentary rock
rock formed from layers of sediment that overlay and squeeze together or are chemically combined
solar system
a star and all the planets and other bodies that orbit it; the region in space where these bodies move
solid
having a definite shape and a definite volume; one of the fundamental states of matter
solution
a mixture of two or more substances uniformly dispersed throughout a single phase
star
a large, gaseous, self-luminous body held together by gravity and powered by thermonuclear reactions
Sun
the closest star to Earth and the center of our solar system
system
a set of objects, organisms, or different parts acting to form a whole
tissue
similar cells acting to perform a specific function; four basic types of tissue are muscle, connective, nerve, and epidermal
topography
the surface, shape, and composition of a land area
universe
the total sum of all matter and energy that exists
volcano
a vent or fissure in Earth's surface through which magma and its associated materials are expelled; generally a mountain-like structure
volume
a measure of the amount of space an object takes up
water cycle
The path water takes as it is being cycled through the environment, including condensation, evaporation, and precipitation.
weathering
the natural processes that break down and change rock into soil,sand, and other materials
wheel and axle
a type of simple machine; a circular frame or disk revolving around a central axis
conductor
A material that readily allows electric charges to pass through it and therefor carries electricity well.
ecosystem
an ecological community, together with its environment, functioning as a unit
fossil fuels
the remains of animal or plant life from past geologic ages that are now in a form suitable for use as a fuel (e.g., oil, coal, or natural gas)
frequency
the number of cycles or waves per unit time
independent variable
the factor that is changed in an experiment in order to study changes in the dependent variable
mass
the amount of matter an object contains
plate tectonics
theory of global dynamics in which Earth's crust is divided into a smaller number of large, rigid plates whose movements cause seismic activity along their borders
screw
a type of simple machine that consists of an inclined plane wrapped around a cylinder
thermal energy
internal energy found by adding the kinetic energy of particles making up a substance
variable
an event, condition, or factor that can be changed or controlled in order to study or test a hypothesis in a scientific experiment
wedge
a type of simple machine that consists of an inclined plane used to separate two objects
compound
a substance made up of at least two different elements held together by chemical bonds that can only be broken down into elements by chemical processes
molecule
the smallest unit of matter of a substance that retains all the physical and chemical properties of that substance; consists of a single atom or a group of atoms bonded together