43 terms

Chapter 3 - Ancient Egypt

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Nile River
The world's longest river, which flows over 4,000 miles northward through East Africa into the Mediterranean Sea
delta
very fertile, flat land made of silt dropped by a river as it drains into a larger body of water
Lower Egypt
Northern Egypt, lies lower or downstream on the Nile River
Upper Egypt
Southern Egypt, lies upstream on the Nile River
pharaoh
the title of the rulers of Ancient Egypt
Menes
King of Upper Egypt who united Upper and Lower Egypt
unification
the joining of two separate parts into one
mummification
the process of preserving a dead body through embalming and drying; method used by Ancient Egyptians
pyramids
huge stone structures built as tombs, or burial places, for the pharaohs
Khufu
Egyptian pharaoh who built the Great Pyramid
hieroglyphics
Egyptian writing system which used about 800 picture signs
papyrus
reed plant pressed together to form a kind of paper
Jean Champollion
French scholar who figured out how to read hieroglyphs in 1822 by using the Greek writing on the Rosetta Stone
Nubia
wealthy kingdom in south of Egypt, had gold mines
Ahmose I
Egyptian Pharaoh who created the new kingdom, and made Egypt a strong military power
Hatshepsut
female pharaoh, known for her burial temple, Deir el Bahri
Kush
wealthy kingdom in Southern
Egypt that had gold, copper and precious stones
Ramses II
last strong pharaoh, ruled for 67 years, 1304 BC to 1237 BC
cataracts
steep rapids in a river
Kerma
the ancient capital of the kingdom of Kush in Upper Nubia
dynasty
line of rulers in a family
nobles
ruling wealthy class in Egypt
afterlife
life after death
mummies
preserved body of a human to prepare for the afterlife
elite
royalty or people of wealth and power
engineering
application of scientific knowledge to solve practical problems
Middle Kingdom
Time Period of 2050 BC - 1750 BC
New Kingdom
Time Period of 1550 BC - 1050 BC
trade routes
paths followed by traders
Queen Hatshepsut
1st female pharaoh of Egypt
Ramses the Great or Ramses II
last great pharaoh of ancient Egypt - ruled for 62 years
Rosetta Stone
stone found by Jean Champollion - allowed us to learn the meaning of hieroglyphics
sphinxes
imaginary creatures with the body of lions and the heads of other animals or humans
obelisk
tall, four-sided pillar pointed on top
King Tutankhamen
Egypitan pharoah whose tomb was found in 1922
Piankhi
Also known as Piye, Kush ruler who conquered Egypt
trade network
a system of people in different lands who trade goods.
merchants
traders
exports
items sent out to other regions
imports
goods brought in from other regions
Queen Shanakhdakheto
first woman to rule Kush
King Ezana
leader of Aksumite army - conquered Kush in CE 300
Thutmose I
Egyptian who took control of Kush in 1500 BC