The Neoclassical Period and the Enlightenment
Terms in this set (80)
The Age of Reason
Or known as the Age of Enlightenment in the West from the end of the 17th century that lasted through much of the 18th century.
Advances during the Enlightenment
Science, Philosophy, Government, and the Arts. There was optimism about the benefits for humankind from rationalism. A new willingness to question authority in all arenas of life. Scientific discoveries in astronomy, biology, human anatomy, and chemistry.
Who said, "The age we live in is a busy age, in which knowledge is rapidly advancing towards perfection?"
English philosopher Jeremy Bentham.
Goal of the Encyclopedie
To collect human knowledge in one place.
Major Themes of the Neoclassical Period
Skepticism, Rationalism, Empiricism, Logic, Progress, Revolution, Order, Clarity, Deism, and Classicism
Art movement of 18th century that drew on Greek and Roman art for models of harmony idealized realism, and reason. It embraced harmony and balance and shunned the excess of Baroque works.
Greek philosophical school that maintained human knowledge was limited and uncertain and probability of correct morality was enough for acting in a moral fashion. It acknowledged the limitations of human reasoning.
A point of view that emphasizes the role of reason, over the senses, in gaining knowledge.
Philosophical doctrine that says all knowledge is derived from our senses. Francis Bacon developed the scientific method based on observation, experimentation, and induction all in accordance with this theme.
Thinking in a linear, step-by-step manner about ideas or problems.
The philosophers of the Enlightenment Period
They turned away from the influence of devour faith, which they believed clouded human judgment with emotional bias. They also believed that logical proofs were the only way to ascertain that anything was true.
Following along with a focus on scientific rather than faith-based ways of thinking, this was born. These are typically Christians who still believed God as a higher power but only as the original creator of the world, not an entity who directly interferes with events of human history. It grew out of rationalism and empiricism.
Key Philosophers of the Enlightenment
Rene DesCartes (the father of modern philosophy, 1596-1650), Immanuel Kant (Critique of Pure Reason, 1724-1804), Bishop Berkeley, and David Hume, used rational skepticism to ensure that their thinking was based on logic and not on prejudice.
Sir Isaac Newton paved the way for modern science. In his book, The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy (1687), he explains the Laws of Motion.
The study of thinking
Cogito ergo sum
"I think, therefore I am," from Rene Decartes. He felt all previous knowledge was prejudiced from religious beliefs.
Francois Marie Aroue (1694-1778), who saw science and reason as the driving forces behind human social advancement. He wrote "Essay on Custom" which traced the progress of world civilization free from nationalistic and religious prejudice.
A major theme based on principles of reason, individualism, and progress led to pervasive political and social changes. Occurred both in U.S. and France. Their ideas was that authority derives solely from the consent of the governed versus the older notion of the divine right of kings.
British Philosopher. In his "Second Treatise of Government" in the 17th century, he held critical revolutionary ideas that had a tremendous influence on American thinking and government. He paved the way for democracy.
The worldview that dominated Enlightenment thinking was the belief in a comprehensible world under the direction of an orderly Christian God using natural laws to exert divine will. However, some thinkers known in France as the Encylopedistes proposed after the Revolution the end of Christianity in France.
Gotfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646-1716)
A prominent German mathematician who co-invented calculus (with Isaac Newton) proposed a system to devise philosophical clarity.
Leibniz's notion of fundamental substance in the cosmos that cannot be divided into parts and which functions in predetermined ways and represents pre-established, universal harmony, source of which, ultimately, is God. He took everyday notions of clarity to a cosmic, metaphysical level.
Both Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Jefferson
Proponents of Deism
or Neoclassicism, Aesthetic principles and themes tracing their roots back to the ancient Greeks and Romans. Its influence was throughout all artistic disciplines.
Painter of "The Oath of the Horatii (1784) and "the Death of Marat (1793).
Human nature was the basis for natural law and in contrast to man-made law, carried the authority of God.
Captures a succinct and powerful way the relationship humanism, Enlightenment philosophy, and political governance. It established the idea of a new nation tha was a product of the philosophies of the era.
Galileo's Revolutionary Theories
Discovered the structure of the solar system a
Believed that human reason is the key to knowledge
Believed that all knowledge was derived through our senses and based on ideas and theories on testing, observation, and experience.
Believed that the native peoples they encountered through trade and colonization were, in some ways, morally superior to civilized societies.
Noble Savage Theory
That a person is at his or her best in wholly natural environments uncorrupted by society.
French Philosophes and creator (with Jean Le Rond d'Alembert) of the greatest encyclopedia in the 18th century.
Voltaire's attack on the optimism of Gottfried Leibniz. It was a satirical indictment of outdated social and political practices.
The concept that all people were equal and rational
English philosopher whose work created a foundation for modern political science philosophy. He wrote Leviathan, which addresses the origin of states and governments and led to the development of the highly influential Social Contract Theory. He argued that the absence of an absolute authority figure would lead to a "war of all against all," which he believed was the natural state of humanity.
Social Contract Theory
Suggests that a formal society or state structure is born through an agreement, either conscious or subconscious, between individuals in which each relinquishes some of his or her individuals rights for the sake of establishing a larger state with ultimate authority. He believed that each person's concern centered on his or her immediate needs.
A german philosopher, focused on duty-driven ethics or deontology. He promoted consistency and believed that if we agree and apply the same principles to every pertinent situation, we will have a coherent system of morality.
Are ethical theories that maintain that the moral rightness or wrongness of an action depends on its intrinsic qualities and not on its practical consequences.
Kantian term for an absolute and universal moral demand or obligation founded on reasoning. No "ifs"
Actions one should take to bring about some goal or desire. They are often expressed as "if" statements. "If you want to pass the course, you ought to study for it."
Argued for the advancement of women in an age when women were believed to be naturally inferior to men. Mother to author Mary Shelley of Frankenstein.
A french philosopher, writer, and mathematician. Cogito Ergo Sum or "I think, therefore I am." He also determined through series of logical and rational processes that God and material things do in fact exist as well. He elevated intellectualism and marked the beginning of modern Western thinking. Wrote Meditations on First Philosophy a six part treatise in which he discards all knowledge that cannot be known for certain, and accepts only what can be proven.
Primary Literary Values
Balanced and measured language and an emphasis on reason. Nonfiction works focused on social reform.
One of the first British Novels
Pamela by Samuel Richardson, a novel that uses sympathy to attempt to enact social reform.
Key Literary Writers
Jonathan Swift, Voltaire, Alexander Pope, Samuel Richardson, Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Enlightenment Literary techniques
Roussesau uses reason, Richardson uses sensibility, Pope uses satire
Playwrights saw certain aspects of classical drama as models for creating dramatic works that reflected order and clarity from the ancient Greeks and Romans of the Classical Period. Their plays were characterized by grandiosity and opulence to serve a purpose. They chose to write and critique often the class and the pomp and circumstance of religion.
Renaissance and Neoclassical Inspiration
Both had found inspiration through classical theater, but Renaissance playwrights often freely reinterpreted classical myths and genres, while Neoclassical writers returned to the classical unities of time, place, and action (limiting the action of a play to a single day, a single location, and a single plot).
Order and Clarity in Theater
Tragedy and comedy were also shown by strictly separating tragedy and comedy, never mixing them in the same play as earlier playwrights had done.
"Heroic Tragedy" focused on themes of love, honor, and courage.
"Comedy of Manners" that satirized the behavior of the upper classes, often focused on relationships between men and women.
Innovations in plays
Intricate and elaborate costumes and scenery were staged indoors. Women were able to act on stage for the first time.
English: John Dryden and Aphra Behn (the first women), French: Jean Batiste Moliere, Jean Racine, and Pierre Corneille. Tragedy: Moliere, Racine Corneille, Dryden, Racine, and Corneille focused on tragedy. Behn and Moliere wrote comedies.
A family's attempt to expose the fraud of their house-guest, Tartuffe. Orgon, the head of household is infatuated with what he perceives as Tartuffe's religious piet, but it is feigned. It is a commentary on how blind devotion to religion enables hypocrisy within society.
Late Baroque artistic style that was lighter and more playful and used ornate decoration, pastel colors, and asymmetrical arrangement of shell-like curves.
Neoclassical painters used sharp colors and this. It is a contrast of light and dark to achieve the illusion of depth. Human figures appear to be almost sculptural in nature.
First History of Art
Wrote by Johann Joachim Wiinckelmann. He declared that for art to be great it must imitate the spirit of the Greeks and Romans.
embraced harmony, clarity, and balance, and the philosophical themes of order and progress depicting scenes that emphasized civic virtue and civic morality.
Jacques Louis David
(1748-1825) is considered the preeminent Neoclassical painter. His paintings moved away from the playful and ornate toward more austere and orderly style of art making a political statement. His painting "Oath of Horatii (1784) became an inspiration for the French revolutionary movement.
(1741-1807) A prominent female artist famous for her portraits.
John Singleton Copley
(1738-1815) A prominent American neoclassical painter whose talent earned him exceptional financial reward. Watson and the shark (1778) and the portrait of Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Mifflin (1773)
(1738-1820) Painted historical scenes around and after the time of the American Revolution (1765-1783)
A swiss painter (1741-1825) whose paintings often explored elements of the supernatural. His works blends elements of Neoclassicism and Romanticism.
William Hunter and Jan van Rymsdyk
Anatomist and obstetrician (1738-1815) contributed to the study of the female reproductive process.
Moved away from the grand and ornate styles during the Baroque period and reflected features of classical Greek and Roman architecture.
The classical period in music
from 1730 to 1820 this period in music coinsides with the enlightenment and the neoclassical movements. Composers focused on balance, order, and structural clarity with more lyrical melodies over slower more chordal harmonic progressions.
Mozart, Franz Joseph Haydn, Antonio Salieri, Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach, and Christoph Willibald Gluck, Ludwid van Beethoven became a bridge between the classical and romantic periods.
Music that contains only a single part
Improvised and/or wordless vocals concerning the singer's thoughts, typically associated with African-American music and work songs from before the American Civil War. It made use of call and response.
Gave rise to blues, jazz, and gospel music
Cultural exchange and diversity
Key aspects in the Enlightenment pursuit of reason and scientific thought and the suppression of traditional biases.
A trend of enlightenment
The diversity of information brought about higher thinking. The mixing of many cultures brought new information, which allowed thinkers and philosophers to evaluate more than one voice before making a personal opinion; hence, higher thought was encouraged.
The Enlightenment's Influences on Contemporary Life
We still sing many many popular songs from the era such as "Yankee Doodle." Its focus on rights, on knowledge, on the betterment of mankind and a desire to achieve it is still strong to this day.
The White Man's Burden
They (white europeans and their descendents in US) felt a sense of superiority and an obligation to help the rest of the world to achieve similar enlightenment. After a poem by Rudyard Kipling.
The belief, held by many Americans, that the US is the greatest nation on earth and that it is the most advanced in terms of political development and individual freedom.
A major theme: progress, emphasis on reason, and philosophical advancements led to political revolution throughout the Western world, especially in the American colonies and France.
A major theme: a system of philosophical clarity was developed, largely by mathematician Gottfried Leibniz.
Rise of Capitalism
Facilitated the exchange of ideas and cultural practices, which intellectuals used in shaping their philosophies.
Emphasized the role that individualized thought could play in crossing all racial and religious lines.