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diagnosis, prognosis, management, and evaluation

What are the key roles of dental radiographs in relation to periodontal diseases?

periodontal diseases

• diseases that affect both the soft tissues (gingiva) and bone around the teeth.

gingivitis and periodontitis

What are the most common periodontal diseases?


• inflammation of the gingiva - limited to the soft tissue.


• infection that includes the loss of alveolar bone.

combo of radiographic and clinical exams

What is the proper diagnosis and evalation of periodontal diseases?

interdental septa

• alveolar bone changes between the teeth.

horizontal and vertical

What are the patterns of bone loss?

horizontal bone loss

• height of bone loss around adjacent teeth in a region.
• occurs in a plane parallel to the CEJ.

vertical bone loss

• aka. angular bone loss.
• occurs in a direction where the resorption of one tooth root sharing the interdental septum is greater than the other tooth.

localized and generalized

How is the distribution of bone loss determined?

localized bone loss

• distribution of bone loss that involves one or only a few teeth.

generalized bone loss

• distribution of bone loss that occurs throughout the entire dental arches.

furcation involvement

• bone loss between the roots of multirooted teeth.


• hardened plaque that appears slightly radiopaque and must be significantly calcified to be recorded on radiographs.
• may appear as irregular projections on proximal root surfaces or ringlike around neck of the tooth.

occlusal trauma

• local contributing factor seen on radiograph.
• does NOT cause periodontal disease but has been shown to hinder the body's response to the disease.


• widening of the periodontal ligament space (between lamina dura and root surface of tooth, with its base toward the crown) due to excessive occlusal forces

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