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40 terms

Nutrition 4

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insulin producing cells of the pancreas
In type 1 diabetes, an autoimmune disease may destroy the ________.
True
An overweight person is more likely to develop type 2 diabetes than a person of normal weight.
liver
In the body, the major storage sites for glycogen are the muscles and
diverticulosis.
A diet low in fiber is associated with an increased risk of developing
the extent to which a given food raises blood glucose and insulin
Which of the following BEST describes the glycemic index?
glucose
Which of the following carbohydrates is the end product of photosynthesis?
True
Carbohydrate digestion ceases in the stomach because the pH of the stomach inactivates salivary amylase.
False
Consumption of all forms of fruit including fresh, frozen, canned, dried and fruit juices are encouraged in the pyramid system.
glycogen
The storage form of glucose in animals found in the liver and skeletal muscle is
the synthesis of new glucose from amino acids.
Gluconeogenesis is
table
When fructose and glucose are bonded together, they form ________ sugar.
pancreas
Insulin is synthesized and released by the
carbohydrate loading.
A technique employed by some endurance athletes to increase their storage of muscle glycogen is
insulin
Which of the following hormones is released when your blood sugar is too high?
chewing gum
Sugar alcohols are most often used in which of the following products?
True
Fructose is the sweetest natural sugar.
high blood cholesterol.
All of the following are symptoms/side effects of ketosis EXCEPT
two monosaccharides.
A disaccharide is formed by the chemical bonding of
carbohydrate and fat
Which of the following are the preferred fuels for most body functions?
carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
Carbohydrates contain
polysaccharides
The term complex carbohydrates refers to
type 2
Approximately 18 million Americans have diabetes. Which of the following is the most prevalent form of diabetes?
liver
Which organ is responsible for glucose storage and release for maintaining a normal glucose level?
False
Research has shown that aspartame promotes the development of Alzheimer's disease.
legumes.
The richest dietary source of resistant starch is ________
insulin
After a meal, which hormone is responsible for moving glucose into the body's cells?
Because individuals do not produce any insulin, treatment always involves insulin therapy.
Which of the following is TRUE regarding type 1 diabetes?
True
The most common source of added sugars in the U.S. diet comes from soft drinks.
True
The incidence of type 2 diabetes is increasing among children and adolescents.
osteoporosis
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of the metabolic syndrome?
saccharin
Which artificial sweetener was almost banned because of a proposed relationship with bladder cancer in experimental animals?
People with PKU cannot metabolize the amino acid phenylalanine
Individuals with the disease phenylketonuria (PKU) should not consume the artificial sweetener aspartame. Why?
glucose
What is the major monosaccharide found in the body?
130 grams
How many grams of carbohydrate (per day) are recommended to prevent ketosis in healthy individuals (RDA)?
diabetes mellitus
Individuals with untreated ________ are at risk for developing ketoacidosis.
obesity
All of the following are associated with type 1 diabetes EXCEPT
thyroxin
Which of the following hormones is NOT involved in maintaining blood glucose levels?
True
Excessive production of insulin can result in hypoglycemia.
ketones
In the absence of carbohydrate, ________ are produced from the incomplete breakdown of body fat.
Insulin is a protein and would be broken down by the human digestive tract if taken orally.
Insulin CANNOT be taken orally. Why?