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formed from older rocks under intense heat or pressure at depths beneath the earth's surface
Arches and stacks
formations of resistant rock left standing after softer rock had been worn away (eroded) by
a steep slope running from the edge of the continental shelf down to the ocean floor
large clumps of ice, dust and frozen gases that travel around the Sun in long elliptical orbits
the "brain" of the cell; houses the codes that control cell activities; often centrally located
rod-shaped bodies contained within the nucleus which carry the genetic code for reproduction
hold up the rest of the plant, and have tubes that carry water and food between the leaves and the roots
attached to bones and allows voluntary (controlled by conscious thought) movement of limbs
found in internal organs and aids in involuntary (controlled by autonomic nervous system) movement in respiratory, excretory and reproductive systems
lines the back wall of the eye and contains rods and cones, which are light-sensitive receptor cells
animal divides itself and each piece grows the missing parts and becomes a full offspring
production of offspring from eggs which do not require fertilization by a "partner."
characteristic, such as eye color or height, which is coded for by genes contained on chromosomes
thread-like structures in the nucleus of every cell that carry genetic codes for the cell's activity
small gland attached to the base of the brain which secretes hormones that influence growth, metabolism, and reproduction
large gland in the front of the neck, it secretes hormones which regulate growth and metabolism
the movement by animals over long distances in order to reproduce, mate, raise young, or find food
a long period of rest or inactivity by an animal, usually in the winter, to conserve energy
series of changes or characteristics that are made by an animal which enable it to survive in its environment
1. chemical evolution -organic molecules were first formed. 2. development of single-celled organisms- capable of asexual reproduction. 3. development of complex, multi-cellular organisms - capable of sexual reproduction.
Theory of "Natural Selection."
theory that the earth's species have changed and diversified over time. first described by Charles Darwin. expression "survival of the fittest" was used to describe this process in the 19 century
have a definite size and shape; particles are packed together tightly and are in a regular pattern
have a definite size and volume, but no definite shape; particles are more active and farther apart than a solid
no definite size or shape; a gas will fill whatever space it occupies; particles move freely and are even farther apart from each other than a liquid
amount of mass packed into a given unit of volume; density is the relative "heaviness" of an object
a change from a liquid to a gaseous state caused when a liquid is heated to its boiling point
a mixture in which small particles are spread evenly throughout a liquid, resulting in a physical change, but not a chemical change, in the liquid
substance which contains only one kind of atom An element cannot be broken down by physical or chemical means. There are 103 elements that are named with most of them occurring naturally
lists the elements in order of their atomic number displays the full name of each element, its symbol, as well as its atomic mass
Newton's law of motion 1
Every object at rest remains at rest, and every object in motion continues moving in a straight line at a steady rate, unless acted upon by an outside force
Newton's law of motion 2
amount of force needed to change the speed of an object depends on the mass of the object and the amount of acceleration, or deceleration, needed
condition in which all forces and influences acting upon an object cancel each other out and equalize
energy stored in the nucleus of every atom may be released by a fission reaction or by a fusion reaction
a bar that pivots about a fixed point and thus reduces the amount of the force required to lift an object
Electromagnetic (EM) spectrum
the arrangement of different types of waves, according to their wavelengths
have medium-sized wavelengths, consist of tiny particles of radiation travel fast and straight, they don't require a material to travel through, and they can move through a vacuum.
the transfer of heat from particle to particle that occurs when two substances of different temperatures come into contact with each other
the flow of electrons (negatively charged atomic particles) through a conductor to create energy
measure the flow of electrical current (the steady flow of electrons through a conductor)
are a unit of measurement of electrical resistance. Resistance is the opposition of the flow of something
the property of some objects, like iron, aluminum, nickel and cobalt, which allows them to attract other magnetic objects to themselves like poles repel; opposite poles attract
an unbroken path formed by electrical conductors through which electricity can flow
conducting investigations and looking for explanations to questions about the physical world
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