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Chapters 9 through 17

Frederick Thrasher's theory

Coined the term interstitial group to describe a group that fills a crack in the social fabric and maintains standard group practices.

Jeffrey Fagan's theory

Proposed that most gangs fall into 1 of the 4 categories: social gangs, party gang, serious delinquent gangm abd organized gang.

At what age do most youth join their first gang?


Gang control law enforcement tactics:

3 basic forms are youth services programs, gang details, and gang units.

Ethnic group dropout rates:

Although all dropout rates have decreased, Hispanics have the highest high school dropout rates while Whites have the lowest.

What % of teachers have been victims of crime in their schools?


At what age have criminology studies found aggressive behavior to be predictive of violence at the age of 30?

8 years old

Effects of cocaine:

euphoria, restlessness and excitement

Effects of ingesting heroin:

relief from fear and apprehension, release of tension, and elevation of the sprits

Results of the Monitoring Future Survey of 2006

Annual use of oxycontin was down for the first time among seniors, but reached its highest levels among younger students.


Mobilization of Youth offered employment opportunities in the community, coordinated social services, and sponsored social action groups.

Chicago Area Project

One of the earliest juvenile delinquency prevention programs created by Clifford Shaw and Henry McKay in 1933. Qualified local leaders coordinated social services centers that promoted community solidarity and counteracted social disorganization.

Mid-City Project

Detached street worker project conducted in Boston reached out to youth who were unlikely to use community centers. Dispatched trained social workers to the streets to meet with gangs 3 to 4 times per week. Attempted to help gang members get school and work opportunities. Didn't significantly affect gang and crime rates.

Cambridge-Somerville Youth Study

Focused on improving individuals rather than their surroundings. Prevention program that was designed using a randomized experimental design. Provided counseling, tutoring, and recreational activities.

Oregon Social Learning Center (OSLC)

Developed by Gerald Patterson and his colleagues. It is the most widely used parenting skills program. Focused on teaching parents discipline techniques, positive reinforcement, consistency, and social skills.

Project PATHE

Stands for Positive Action Through Holistic Education. A comprehensive program used in secondary schools that reduces school disorder and aims to improve the school environment. The goal is to enhance students' experiences and attitudes about school by increasing their bonds to the school, enhancing their self-esteem, and improving educational and vocational achievement.

Big Brothers Big Sisters

National youth mentoring organization, founded in 1904. It is committed to improving the life chances of at-risk children and teens. Focuses on providing youth with an adult friend to serve as a positive role model.

Quantum Opportunities Program

One of the most successful mentoring programsin preventing juvenile delinquency. Was implemented in 5 sites (Milwaukee, Oklahoma City, Philadelphia, Saginaw, and San Antonio. Goal was to improve the life-course opportunities of disadvantaged, at-risk youth during the high school years.

Events that led to reforms and the eventual creation of the juvenile justice system:

urbanization, the child saving movement, growing interest of parens patriae, and the development of institutions for the care of delinquent and neglected children.

Children's Aid Society

child saving organization that took children from the streets of large cities and placed them with farm families on the prairie.

What is the term for a crime that is carried out across the borders of two or more countries and violate the laws of those countries?

transnational crimes

What was the standard of proof required to adjudicate a child delinquent?

preponderance of the evidence

What factors are taken into consideration at a disposition hearing?

the child's prior record and family background

What is a law enforcement philosophy that focuses on addressing the problems underlying incidents of juvenile delinquency rather than the incidents themselves?

problem-oriented policing

What percentage of all violent crime arrests are comprised of juveniles?

16 %

On average, how many juvenile delinquency cases are adjudicated annually?

1.6 million

What are some of the criteria used for choosing what youths may benefit from a diversion program?

whether the offender has previous convictions, being a violent offender, and drug or alcohol history.

About what percent of youths who received restitution as a condition of probation successfully completed their orders?


Multi-Systemic Therapy (MST)

Developed by Scott Henggeler. Focuses on family, peer, and psychological problem solving and communication skills.

What do theorists believe is the main reason for an increase in teen violence in Europe?

immigrating youth populations

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