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Group Counseling Mid-Term
Terms in this set (135)
a broad professional practice involving the application of knowledge and skill in group facilitation to assist an interdependent collection of people to reach their mutual goals, which may be interpersonal or work related. The accomplishments of task related to work, education personal development, personal and interpersonal problem solving or remediation of mental and emotion disorders
A therapeutic delivery system by which one or more professional counselors work with more than one client with the intention of generating insight and/or change in terms of thoughts, feelings, and/or behaviors
information within the group (EX: words & ideas)
The "other" influences at work in group counseling that precipitate group content including empathy, emotions, recapitulation of past relationships, group think, etc.
EX: interactions and relationships among member of the group
Four Types of Groups
Task/Work type of group
- promote effect and effective accomplishment of group task among people who are gathered to accomplish group goals
- focuson specific task(s) until such tasks are completed
- does not aim to change individuals in the group
- purpose is generally clear to all members
-group leader focuses on defining goals, operation, and assigned tasks
Psycho-educational type of group
- the education process can be preventative, growth oriented, and remedial
- purpose can be disseminate information, provide "airtime" for participants, all for practice (ex: role plays & homework) evaluate efficacy and connect to resources
- includes classroom guidance and prevention groups
- focuses on a wide range of clients and issues in individual or few number of session
- Larger in number and less threatening in nature than other counseling orientated groups
-group leader generally mirrors the process outlined by Furr included 1)state purpose 2) establish goals 3) set objectives 4) select content 5) plan activities 6) evaluate
Counseling type of group
- focuses on individual change (behavior, thoughts, feelings, contexts) via group dynamics and interpersonal interaction
- may be preventative, growth-oriented, remedial, support, or multimodal
- size (ex:3-6 members for children; 8-12 members adults) & frequency (outpatient versus inpatients) & number of sessions (6-long term) varies by population
- group leader conducts group composition tasks (Ex: prescreening) and facilitates group interaction including feedback and sharing of experiences/feelings. reactions
Psychotherapy type of group
- remedial in nature in reaction to pervasive psychological tribulation such as severe/chronic maladjustment issues with a focused on personality reconstruction and/or behavior modification
- group are typically small 3-12 members, heterogeneous, and longer term
- groups are most productive when comprised of presecreened volunteered members
- groups are most productive when comprised of prescreened volunteer members
- group leader must have extensive knowledge of group therapy and treatment. Leader both confronts and facilitates during sessions
As the group develops, less time will be spent on content & more on process, one must seek a balance; what results in terms of both content and process reflects personal in the individual and new-found functioning in the group
the agreed upon rules and accepted behaviors in a group. Some are dictated by the leader (safety and confidentiality) others by the members (pattern of interaction)
Type of group interactions
1) Non-verabal behaviors (at least 50% of the messages, often "more honest" than verbal)
EX: body behaviors, interaction with environment, seating arrangements, physical behaviors
2) Verbal behaviors
EX: who speaks to whom? How often?
EX: don't prejudge the reason for silence, provide opportunities for involvement
Types of group roles
how we communicate our needs, thoughts, and values in social situations
- promotes constructive group EX: initiates actions & idea, information & opinions seekers, evaluators and recorders
- focus on social-emotional growth of the group; encourage, harmonize & compromise; focus on interrelationships, social and emotional factors
- seek to disrupt the group & prevent goal attainment EX: moralist or self-righteous
type of member that build and maintain: facilitator or encourager
- this type of member plays the role of counselor's helper by ensuring that everyone in the group feel comfortable, movement oriented and valued. Their motive is often that of domineering or to keep the focus off of him or her self
type of member that build and maintain: gatekeeper or expediter
- this role type is incarnated in members who make sure the group operates within the proposed norms and rules; they, too. can act like pseudo-counselor & may generate hostility from others if they become too active in this role
type of member that build and maintain: harmonizer or conciliator
these are group mediators who seek to keep conflict down and homeostatic between all members. This is general motivated by either a need to control the dynamics or a personal discomfort with conflict situations
type of member that build and maintain: compromiser or neutralizer
- are members who suggest cognitive solutions or alternative within the group process. They often over-rationalize and neglect heightened emotional states (often because their own tenderness to emotional experiences)
type of member that build and maintain: group observer
- are members who provide feedback to the group by summarizing content or processes in the group; they rarely participate directly in the group and only talk when prompted to do so and, in such occasions, only does so at a sage and superficial level of disclosure
type of member that build and maintain: follower or neuter
- member who expresses a lot of agreement
Individual oriented roles: aggressor
- is a member who disagrees with most group members' ideas & behaviors and will often impose own values and recommendations on others
Individual oriented roles: blocker
- is a rigid member and does not allow group process and elaboration
Individual oriented roles:recognition seeker
- is a group member who boasts about self or calls constant attention to self or issues
Individual oriented roles: playboy/playgirl
- is a member who is often smooth and manipulative in the group, nonchalant or cynical, and liaise-faire about investing in real change
Individual oriented roles: help-seeker
- member who elicits sympathy and enabling from the group
Individual oriented roles: rescuer
- are members who meet their own need of seemingly "coming to the aid of others" but do not really help members function because of the superficiality and placating of their help-seeking
Individual oriented roles: monopolist
- talk incessantly (often because of their anxiety or perceived inferiority) about issues only tangentially to the group goals and process (therefore alienating the rest of the group)
Individual oriented roles: do-gooder
- wants to be perceived by others in the group as a helper at all costs and does not want to promulgate any uncomfortable conflict or anxiety
Individual oriented roles: informer
- want to "tell on" another member using information often from outside the group or hidden information
Individual oriented roles: withdrawn
- avoid group interaction and typically remain silent and dormant in group
Individual oriented roles: hostile
- members are those that intimidate other members ans assuage openness in the group
group role problem spots: role collision
- conflict between the role the individual plays in outside world & role expected in the group
group role problem spots: role incompatibility
- person given a role within group that he or she doesn't want or is uncomfortable with
group role problem spots: role confusion
- when member doesn't know what role to perform; especially in leaderless group
group role problem spots: role transition
- a person is expected to assume a different role as the group progresses but does not feel comfortable in doing so
- can be described either as the study of group or, moreGro often, the process-level phenomena in a given group or set of groups
Group Dynamics Info.
- as group member interface & influence each other, the total group (and entitles within the group) develops dynamic relationship patterns that are more than the sum of a random collection of individuals; instead, these patterns are particular to the configurations established within the group (& its own influences)
- these processes include norms, roles, relations, development, need to belong, social influence, and effect on behavior
Negative group dynamics
- include low cohesion, avoiding conflict, unprocessed role conflicts, individual member effects such as domination or narcissism
- represent the totality of psychological/counseling theory
- self-understanding = cognition
- socializing techniques = behaviors
- catharsis = emotion/feeling
- cohesion = precondition for change
EX: social too? systems too? construction/constructivism too?
- the importance or salience of factors are perceived differently by client and counsel/observer
Therapeutic factors type: installation of hope
- members are encouraged by seeing that others have solved or are actively solving their problems
- the leader must reinforce this when possible
- members have the ability to learn from others at difference places in the developmental continuum
- begins with members making a minimal commitment to the group
** research shows that a high expectation of hope for help correlates strongly with successful outcomes
Therapeutic factors type: universality
- the realization that one is not so different from others
- in other words, we are not, "unique in our wretchedness"
- this is of utmost importance in groups with seemingly diverse problems and individuals
- has particular resonance in the early stages of group
Therapeutic factors type: imparting information
- receiving advice and suggestions
- advice giving will occur in every group and is inevitable at the beginning
- it is important for the leader to give group members a realistic preview of the group dynamic so they know that you will be working away from advice giving
- the leader will help process the "act" of giving and receiving advice to help diminish this
Therapeutic factors type: altruism
- the process of helping others
- this can be point of reflection instigated by the leader- particularly during the close of a group session
Therapeutic factors type: the corrective recapitulation of the primary family
- experiencing and learning from the group as if it were one's family
- remember: issues must be relived correctively!
Therapeutic factors type: development of socialization skills/techniques
- acquiring interpersonal skills
- can be explicit but will be mostly implicit
- remember: social chit-chat occurs before and after group session in many circumstances
Therapeutic factors type: imitative behavior
- the act of modeling oneself after another member of the group or the group leader
- learning fro returning (rolling admission group) or more experienced members
Therapeutic factors type: catharsis
- being able to express feelings and concern about others
- primarily focused on psychic release
Therapeutic factors type: interpersonal learning
- one achieves mental health to the extent that one becomes aware of one's interpersonal relationships
- (group) counseling is an interpersonal enterprise (goals and application)
- corrective emotional experience
- are interpersonal reaction appropriate?
- expression of feeling is insufficient
- recognize inappropriateness of action or inactions
- deepens and authenticates interactions
- the group as a social microcosm
- you act as who you are wherever you are- eventually
- if something in the group is being actively avoided, then nothing else of real import will occur
3 principles of interpersonal learning
- the importance of interpersonal relationships
- parataxic- distorted perception of others
- transference- unconscious redirection of feelings
- consexual validation- power of seeing self as others see you
- encompasses each members' relationship to the group, the header, and each member
- can be explained as the attractiveness of the group to its members- this will vary other time and from member to member
- group cohesion =
- better attendance
- more participation
- stronger displays of support
- closer adherence to group norms
- cohesion is necessary for other factors but not sufficient alone
- increase respect for group feedback
- does not preclude discomfort or hostility
- conflict is seen as productive
- cohesion allows members to bear
- anger can be expressed to counselor
- realizing important, painful truths about life
Existential Factors: 4 ultimate concerns
1) the inevitability of death causes fear and pain in life leading to making safe choices, being risk-adverse, and a need to exert control
2) isolation bother us. At some level, we live our lives and experience our deaths alone. We tend to search from belonging and esteem from others to run from this feeling
3) Freedom is doppelganger of isolation. If alone, we are free to choose and create our own meaning. When we a choose to belong, we give yup some of this freedom fro the good of others
4) Meaning is what we all search for. Meaning motivates our action and give us identity. Meaning is created (humanism) or assumed (religion or parental indoctrination)
Group leader roles
- traffic director- must help members become aware of behaviors that open communication channels and those that inhibit communication
- modeler of appropriate behavior
- interactional catalyst- both promotes intra/inter-group participation and calls attention to interaction process
- communication facilitator
Group Leader Styles: Authoritarian
- envision self as experts & tend to be rigid & conventional in beliefs
- they interpret/advise/directive
- leader-centered group dynamics
Group Leader Styles: Democratic
- trust participants to develop own potential
- they cooperate/collaborator/share responsibility
Group Leader Styles: Laissez-faire
- leader in name only
- no provided structure &/or direction
- group must assume this responsibility
Group Leader Styles: Leaderless
- leader(s) emerge
- often struggles with identity/roles/processes
Group Leadership Skills: Personalizing
- make certain that the group is structure in such a way to promote appropriate and relevant group dynamics
- ensure that you know and use the names of the group members (and encourage everyone in the group to do the same)
- in the group interchanges, relate the topics to issues most germane and resonate to the individual
Group Leadership Skills: Structuring
- this skills is used to explain the topic, rational, and time limit
- the rational need to be framed from the participant's point of view
Group Leadership Skills: Modeling & Coaching
- modeling is central to role play and role play is central to skills building. Also, modeling incarnates functional and doable actions for behavior change. Providing supportive and corrective feedback (coaching) clarifies happenings, reframes them in a positive light and invites behavior modification
Group Leadership Skills: Connecting & Universalizing
- connecting helps build a sense of belonging and acceptance via linking and relating shared thoughts, feelings, and behaviors within the group
-universalizing normalizes these connect sentiments and hence presents validation and legitimacy for the individual and group
Group Leadership Skills: Empathetic Responding
- this is a key way of communication and accenting the core conditions of the participants. Additionally, these purport a directionality for positive life change
Group Leadership Skills:Involving
- this skills ensures that every participant get appropriate "airtime" for desired growth. Two techniques are using a "go-around" and hand-raise (the latter especially with younger groups that said this might be debilitating to the natural course of the group
Group Leadership Skills:Summarizing and Goal Setting
- these skills can be used throughout the group process but are critical at the close of every group
- the summary bring focus back to the purpose of the discussion and generates larger themes to transfer into life
- goal setting is the operationalization of these themes in manageable and desirable outcomes for the group participant. goals can be personal, shared or group wide
-not paying enough attention to formation of the group (member composition, purpose, size, etc)
-not re-planning the individual session
-allowing warm-up activities to last too long
-running out of time and not adequately ending a group
-not having a dynamic opening to the first session
-not establishing a positive working tone for the group
- not understanding multicultural issues and dynamics
-allowing the group to be boring, superficial, or irrelevant to lives/problems of participants
-allowing the group to focus too long on a single person
-not being willing to cut off members when necessary
-not involving other members when working with one member
-using too many or too few excises
-not processing exercises to meaningful level
- proceeding with group without contract or doing pre-group interviews (especially to ascertain membership fit and relevancy)
ASGW (Assoc. of ACA Group work) best practice guidelines
- Provide considerable detail about 3 area:
- group processing
Best practice planning stage
- needs assessment
- physical arrangements
- multicultural issues
Planning: informed consent
- information clients have a right to know
- group participation expectations
-policies regarding entering/exiting group
-out-of-group contact expectations
- two way process: empower the client
- will the client benefit? will the group benefit?
- ask the client: Why would you want to join the group? What do you hope to gain? What have you heard about group? Previous experience?
Planning: Member Preparation
- leader qualifications
- Purpose and nature of group
- expectation delivery (leader and members)
- extreme anxiety
- dissimilar goals
- counterproductive pathology
- significant relationships with another group member
- cannot attend regularly
- high potential to be a problem group member
- unmotivated to join or change
Performing: Review participant expectations
- regular attendance
- risk-taking, self disclosure, feedback
- out-of-group socializing
-freedom to leave
-initiation of recording
Performing: Establishing confidentiality as a norm
-recording and notes
-expectations and limits
Performing: Rights of Group Member
- translate group learning into application outside group
- conslt with group leader
- freedom from undue pressure to partcipate
-right to one's value
-opportnity to use group for growth
Performing: Leader roles and behaviors
- dual relationships
-awareness of leader influence and vales and group influencers
-use of techniques
-ensure safety and wellness of members
Johari Window Model
Think of window
Known to self Unknown to self
Known to others My public self My blind spots
Unknown to others My hidden self My unconscious self
Characteristic of Effective Feedback
-high degree of intimacy
-is descriptive, not interpretative
-is minimally evaluative
- is checkable by the receiver
-is new information
-pertains to changeable things
-leave decision with the receiving(what to do with feedback)
-is meant to be helpful
-focuses on the sender
- is a risky self-disclosure
-deal with the sender/receiver relationship
-Leaders must develop a plan for processing the group themselves
-discussion with co-leader
-leader should have a plan for group process
-leader must engage in regular evaluation and follow-up
Stage 1: Orientation/Exploration
- Group is signified by:
-Anxiety and insecurity
-Focus on content
-Dependence on the leader
-Search for similarities with other members
Stage 1: Primary Tasks
-Determining how to accomplish purpose
-Attending to social relationships
-Determining the extent to which one will become an active group member
-Developing trust versus mistrust among leaders and members
Stage 1: Leader Techniques
-Focus on the here-and-now
-Dealing with fears
Stage 2: Conflict/Transition
-Members can be viewed as dealing with resistance while determining tops and bottoms.
-Group is signified by:
-Conflict and struggle for control
-Challenging the Group leader
-Tendency to categorize members as problem types
-Refusal to express persistent negative feelings
Stage 2: Primary Member Tasks
-Recognize and deal with resistance
-Respect own resistances while still working
-Recognize and express negative feelings
-Move from dependence on the leader
-Learn to confront constructively
-Become open to here-and-now
-Willing to work through conflict
Stage 2: Primary Leader Tasks
-Create supportive and challenging climate
-Encourage and challenge members to express themselves
-Model non-defensive responses to challenges
-Encourage autonomy and responsibility
-Teach respect for member's anxiety and defenses while encouraging them to move beyond
Stage 2: Leader Techniques
-Handle defensive behavior
-focus on group,
-Work with conflict
-Process relationships and dynamic
-Explore resistance and fears
-Work with challenges to leaders
Stage 2: Working with co-leaders
-Be aware of
-Simultaneous challenges to leaders
Stage 3: Cohesion/Working
-Members can be viewed as changing as the group changes also. This interplay is the crux of the work.
-Group is signified by:
- Group cohesion
- Increased morale/trust
- Greater self-disclosure
- Shared leadership
- Increased risk-taking
Stage 3: Possible problems
-Collusion to relax
-May not use insights gained in group outside
-May withdraw due to intensity
Stage 3: Leader Techniques
-Reinforcement of therapeutic factors
-Note common themes
-Interpreting behavior patterns
-Translate insight into action
-Encourage group/self responsibility
-Work with intense emotions
Stage 4: Termination/Consolidation
-Members can be viewed as dealing with issues of loss while being encouraged to project into the future.
-Group is signified by:
-Consolidation of learning
-Members will pull back
-Future actions focus
-Reactions to one another
-Evaluation of group experience
Stage 4: Possible problems
-Use the group as an end
-Bring up major issues in the last session
Stage 4: Primary Tasks
-Process members choice to leave group
-Termination in each session
-Ending the Group
-Taking something away from group experience
-Plan for obstacles
Stage 4: Leader Techniques
-Address termination from the beginning
-Acknowledge lost members
-Help members express feelings
-Transfer of learning
-Examine effects of group
-Give and receive feedback
-Prepare for termination
-Express negative aspects of group
-Personal reactions to group
Problem Group Members
-Each group member MUST be a problem
-The "unproblematic" client does not exist
-The success of therapy depends on each individual's encountering and then mastering basic life problems in the here-and-now of the group
-If clients were perfect and trouble-free, they wouldn't need therapy
Problem Group Members
-The term "problem client" can erroneously place the fault solely on the individual patient (therapists overestimate the role of the client's character)
-As counselors, we need to be mindful of several factors that contribute to a "problematic client":
-Client's personal psychodynamics
-Dynamics of the larger group
-Interactions with group members
-Interactions with therapist
The Monopolist Characteristics
-Lacks insight about their behavior and impact on others
-Anxious when silent and others are speaking
-Compulsive speech is an attempt to deal with anxiety
-Reinsert themselves in the discussion
-Filling in sentences
-Responding to every statement
-Finds similarities between themselves and other members who are speaking..."I'm like that too!"
The Monopolist Participates
-Participates by describing events, conversations, stories, or problems in endless detail
-Barrage other group members with questions and their own observations
-Monopolize the group by means of "the crisis method"
-Present "urgent" problems that demand attention
-Other members are silent because their problems may seem trivial in comparison
How do the Monopolists effect the Group?
-While members may initially welcome and encourage the monopolist, the mood may quickly turn to anger and frustration
-Tension exists and passive members may build resentment or engage in passive-aggressive behaviors
-Attacks on the monopolist can intensify the problem and contributes to a vicious cycle
-Disrupts cohesiveness which can lead to
-When the monopolist is confronted, typically in an aggressive, hostile manner, the monopolist may sulk, briefly decide to not verbally participate in future sessions, or even leave the group
Monopolists Therapeutic Considerations
-Shouting down or silencing the client does NOT help
If the therapist silences the member, other members may experience anxiety out of concern a similar fate will befall them
-In group therapy, it is often preferred to allow the group to handle a group problem but the monopolistic member is one that the group (esp. a young group) often cannot handle
-To prevent scapegoating, focus on the role played by the group by inquiring about the reasons why the group permits or encourages one member to carry the burden of the entire meeting.
-Possible reasons include:
-Relief by not having to verbally participate or self-disclose
-Safer to allow another to do all the talking and therefore, not be responsible for the group's therapeutic tasks
Monopolists Therapeutic Considerations Cont.
-Once the group explores and identifies their reasons for inactivity, progress and greater engagement in therapy can occur
-Encourage the group to give empathetic feedback to the monopolist about the impact on the group
Interventions for dealing with the monopolistic member must also include working directly with that individual
-Do not silence the monopolist
-Therapists do not want to hear LESS from the client...we want to hear MORE
-Encourage the client to engage more fully in the group process
-Help the client to be more self-observant (increase insight)
-Encourage them to be receptive to feedback
-Use good timing and be direct when appropriate for therapeutic value
The Silent Member Characteristics
-Less disruptive but equally challenging
-A silent client is a problem client and rarely benefits significantly from the group
-Interferes with the development of group cohesion
-Evidence indicates the more active and influential a member is in the group matrix, the more likely they and the group will benefit however....
-Some benefit by remaining silent and identifying with other members who share similar problems (vicarious engagement)
-It is possible that changes can occur in a client's life outside group even if they remain silent and seemingly unchanged within the group
The Silent Member Reasons
-Wish to be rescued and brought to life an idealized caregiver (i.e. sulk to force the group to attend to them)
-So conflicted about aggression they cannot self-assert
-Perfectionistic attitude and fear appearing fallible by others
-Do not want to appear weak, unintelligent, boring, or overemotional
-Maintains distance and control through "superior silence"
-GROUP DYNAMICS play a role
-Group anxiety about potential aggression may push a vulnerable member into silence to reduce tension or competition for attention
Silent Group Member Silence
-SILENCE IS NEVER SILENT!
-Silence, like all other behavior in group, has meaning in the "here-and-now" as a representative sample of the client's way of relating to his/her interpersonal world
-The therapeutic task is to not only CHANGE the behavior (which is vital if the member is to remain in the group) but to explore the MEANING of the behavior
Silent Member Therapeutic Considerations
-The therapist must balance effective interventions by not placing excessive pressure on the client nor allow the client to assume an isolated role
-Comment on non-verbal behaviors, gestures, demeanor, etc.
-Foster universality by pointing out that other members also struggled with silence and self-doubt
-Encourage other members to share their own reasons for silence
-Encourage client activity, autonomy, and responsibility by repeated "process checks":
-Can you let us know when you are uncomfortable?"
-How did it feel when you were put on the spot?"
-Is this a meeting where you need to be prompted?"
-If all fails, the group will grow frustrated with the blocked member. Client becomes marginalized and less likely than ever to participate
-Prognosis is poor & therapist may need to withdraw the client from group
The Boring Client Description
-Boredom is to be taken seriously in the group setting
-In the social microcosm of group therapy, boring members recreate their problems and bore group members (and even the therapist!)
-Clients do not typically enter therapy with a presenting problem of being "boring" yet, it is not uncommon to complain about:
-Never having anything to say to others
-No one inviting them to social events/activities
-Being inhibited, shy, socially awkward, or empty
-Others only "use" them
The Boring Client Characteristics
-Do not take risks
-Avoids aggression/compulsively compliant
-Dread rejection and fears abandonment
-Masochistic (negative toward self / self-defacatory)
-Say what they believe others expect them to say and therefore, repress their own views, beliefs, or feelings
-May be concrete and lack imaginative capacity
-Has difficulty identifying and communicating feelings
-Inability to read their own emotional cues may also make these clients vulnerable to medical and psychosomatic illness
Boring Client Therapeutic Considerations
-Group therapy (concurrent with individual therapy) promotes emotional expressiveness through:
-Experimentation with expressing feelings and emotions
-Leaders and group members should encourage spontaneity in boring clients (but do not try to force something that does not exist but rather, to let something out that was there all the time)
-Be mindful of your own boredom with a client (it's important data!)
-Always assume if you are bored, so are other group members
-Counter your boredom with curiosity:
"What makes this client boring?"
"When am I most bored?"
"How can I find the creative, lively person within this client?"
The Help Rejecting Complainer (HRC) Description
-Request help from the group by presenting problems or -complaints and then reject any help offered (distrusts others)
-Present problems in a manner that makes them appear -insurmountable
-Seem to take pride in the insolubility of their problems
-Often focus on the therapist to obtain advice and solutions
-Feels helpless and dependent on others for a sense of personal worth (any notice from the therapist temporarily enhances their self-esteem)
-Appear oblivious to the group's reactions to them
-They narrowly see their relationship to other members solely on the basis of being more in need of help
-Show competiveness only when another member presents a problem and elicits the attention of the therapist and the group
-Belittles other's complaints and problems by comparing to their own
-When advice is offered, it is either overtly or indirectly rejected
-If accepted verbally, it is rarely acted upon
Help Rejecting Complainer Effects on the Group
-The HRC member draws the energy from the group
-Cohesiveness is undermined
-Absenteeism can occur
-Sub-grouping begins in an attempt to exclude the HRC
Help Rejecting Complainer Therapeutic Considerations
-Do not confuse the help requested by the HRC with the help required for the HRC
-Do not express frustration and resentment (if the therapist does, this will fulfill the client's fear of rejection and abandonment. Also confirms their belief that no one will truly ever understand them)
-Avoid expressing optimism and advice and adopt a "pose of irony" in which the therapist agrees with the content of the client's pessimism while maintaining a detached affect (i.e. "it must really be difficult for you to deal with such a hopeless situation.")
-Helping the HRC be more aware of their interpersonal impact on other members is a major step in examining their characteristic pattern of relationships
Techniques: Communication Clarification
-Focuses group members on the interactions occurring between group members
"Sue, what did you just hear Bob say?"
"Can anyone clarify the message Jim is sending Jill?"
"What are other members of the group hearing in this conversation?"
Techniques: Here and Now
-Focuses the group members on the actions, behaviors, thoughts, affect, and communication occurring in group at the moment
"You said your problem is controlling your temper; right now, how are you doing at controlling yourself and how are you doing it?"
"Now that we have told our stories for being in the group, I wonder what is happening right now."
"You said you felt bad yesterday. What impact does that have on how you feel or what you are doing in this group right now?"
Techniques: Process Illumination
-Used to discuss with group members what has been happening in the group over a period of time
"What have we as a group been doing for the last 50 minutes?"
"It seems to me that we spent the first half of this session talking about things from the past. Does anyone else have that sense?"
"How safe is it in this group for people to share their personal stories/feelings?"
Technique: Technical Expert
-Provides group members with information regarding the function, expectations, or norms of the group
"This group will run for twelve weeks, meeting each Monday at 5 PM"
"The fact that some group members share a lot and others share very little has hindered our group movement and cohesion"
"I think that we need to be more active in our direct confrontation of non-acceptable group behaviors
Technique: Modeling-Setting Participant
-Demonstrates for group members how to share information, self-disclose, or give feedback to and receive feedback from others
"I am feeling very close to you now"
"As you were talking, I had a strong reaction to what you said"
"It must have been difficult for you to share that with the group"
-Attempts to stop unwanted or problematic discussions from harming other group members
"Okay, let's take a moment's pause and reflect on what is happening here"
"Can we as a group decide that Mary has received enough feedback for the time being and perhaps we can proceed to another topic?"
"What does the group need to hear to assure them that they have been heard by Megan?"
Technique: Changing questions to statements
-Helps group members change a question they have to a direct statement that starts with "I" for the purposes of promoting more direct communication
"Are you upset?" becomes, "I believe that you are upset"
"Is that what you really want?" becomes, "I do not think that is what you really want"
"Are we going to have to talk about emotional stuff?" becomes, "I am nervous about talking about emotional stuff"
Technique: Clarifying the Purpose
-Helps group members remember the purpose of the group
"Okay, so now, to bring us back to the reason we are here—what does this discussion have to do with drugs and alcohol?"
"What we are doing this week is trying to focus on how others see our behaviors in the group"
-Connects group members on a certain topic to promote greater discussion and increase the degree of cohesion between group members
"That was a very clear example of dealing with loss. Who connected with the story or has similar experiences?"
"So now we have three examples of people in this group who are afraid of what the group will say when they disclose personal issues. What might these three individuals say to each other now?"
"It sounds like you are describing a situation similar to the one Emmett described, do I have that right Emmett?"
-Makes a feeling, thought, or behavior overt for the individual and the rest of the group to see
"Each time you respond to a comment made in this group, you retort, "Yeah, but..."
"I noticed that when you were talking about getting angry, there were a number of group members who dropped their heads and would not look at you"
Has anyone else observed that when Maxine and Robert talk about something they always turn away from each other?"
Techniques: Drawing Out
-Encourages a silent or quiet group member to provide more information or interaction
"Tom, I would like to hear what you have been thinking about the last few minutes"
"Lee and David seem to have a lot of input on this subject, I wonder if others have something to add"
"Let's break into pairs and tell your partner about one or two things you feel in response to what was just said"
-Provides group members with opportunities to make use of suggestions, new insight, or directions provided by other group members to help them change behavior
"Now that the group has given you some ideas about how to be more assertive with others, how might you apply these this week with your husband?"
"Just as an experiment, the next time you start to feel alone in this group, pick out one of the things that other members have talked about and use it; then report back to us, okay?"
-Gets the group members started in the process of talking with and trusting each other
"I would like to go around the circle and have everyone give us a few statements about what brought them to group"
"Take a minute and think about your favorite type of music and why you love it. Once you have this in mind, take turns disclosing this to the group"
Techniques: Pat on the Back
-Provides group members with positive feedback from other group members. Only clear, direct, honest, and positive comments are acceptable
"Okay, as we close, I want everyone to grab a piece of paper and draw an outline of your hand on it. Now take the paper and have someone tape it to your back. Now, I want you each to write something positive on the hands of everyone in the group"
"I want everyone to take some time and think about the positive attributes each group member has. Once you have them, take the opportunity to directly tell one or two people what thoughts you had and how this makes you feel"
-Attends to any disruption in the normal occurrences of the group
"Last week we had a bit of a disruption in the group by missing the group session for weather reasons. I am interested in any of you have any experiences or thoughts about what it was like to miss the group or what it is like to now come back almost two weeks later"
"It seems that we are one member short this week. I just want to check-in with each of you and see how this might affect the group this week. Any thoughts"
-Provides group members with information about inconsistencies, incongruities, or mixed messages perceived by the counselor
"How do the rest of the members of the group feel, knowing that there are things that Bill is unwilling to disclose to the entire group?"
"As you say that you're not happy about that, I notice that your face seems to have a smile on it"
-is the transition event that ends one set of conditions so that another can begin. In groups, this end allows for new beginnings (clarify meaning and make commitments)
Goals of Termination
-Reflect on their past experiences
-What brought us together?
-What were our goals
-What happened in this group?
-How would you describe the journey?
-Who touched you? In what way?
-Evaluate what was learned
-What happened here that can be applied to our individual goals?
-Acknowledge ambivalent feelings
-Explore feelings of loss, sadness, and separation
-Is there normalcy in this fact?
-Engage in cognitive decision making
-Explicitly state how group learning will impact future thoughts and behaviors.
-Explicitly state plan for difficult times or slip-ups.
-Say thank you and good-bye
-Acknowledge gifts given, lessons learned, and relationships forged.
-Boundaries are the physical and psychological parameters of the group
-Termination occurs at the end of every session & a complete termination at the close of the group
-Termination must include orientation; summarization; discussion of goals; & follow up
-In ending a total group experience, the orientation to termination involves a planned number of sessions that are devoted to closure (at least 2 sessions); this can be a very powerful and useful therapeutic time in the group and members
Effects of Termination on Individuals
-There are many factors that contribute to the effects of termination (e.g., type of group, experiences)
-Farewell-party syndrome tends to avoid the pain of closure
The best way for individuals to end a group is to reflect on what they experienced and ways to make new beginnings. -Thus, dealing with issues of group separation is going to be different for various members. Some may need referrals to other counseling (group or individual)
-Attend to clients who need additional services: (1) Individual counseling; (2) Referral to another group or organization with specialized services; and (3) Recycling into a similar group
Group Session Termination Activities
-Written Reactions (e.g., journals, logs, journal letters)
-Capping skills in termination (i.e., involves a cognitive sharing of events that are removed from the immediate here & now; e.g., summarizing, reviewing, assessing)
-Developing a plan for continuing each member's progress
Issues Around Termination
-There is no one precise way to handle termination correctly. That said, when members are left with a number of unresolved issues, an incorrect termination is obvious.
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