48 terms

Chapter 15 Musculoskeletal System

The Language of Medicine Davi-Ellen Chabner 9thEd
STUDY
PLAY
acetabulum
rounded depression, or socket, in the pelvis that joins the femur (thigh bone), forming the hip joint
acromion
outward extension of the shoulder blade forming the point of the shoulder. it overlies the shoulder joint and articulates with the clavicle
articular cartilage
thin layer of cartilage covering the bone in the joint space
bone
dense, hard connective tissue composing the skeleton. examples: long bones (femur), short bones (carpals), flat bones (scapula), and sesamoid bones (patella)
calcium
one of the mineral constituents of bone. calcium phosphate is the major calcium salt in bones
cancellous bone
spongy, porous, bone tissue in the inner part of a bone
cartilage
flexible, rubbery connective tissue. it is found in the immature skeleton, at the epiphyseal growth plate, and on joint surfaces
collagen
dense, connective tissue protein strands found in bone and other tissues
compact bone
hard, dense bone tissue, usually found around the outer portion of bones
condyle
knuckle-like process at the end of a bone near the joint
cranial bones
skull bones: ethmoid, frontal, occipital, parietal, sphenoid, and temporal
diaphysis
shaft, or mid-portion, of a long bone
disk (disc)
flat, round, plate-like structure. an intervertebral disk is a fibrocartilaginous substance between two vertebrae
epiphyseal plate
cartilaginous area at the ends of long bones where lengthwise growth takes place in the immature skeleton
epiphysis
each end of a long bone; the area beyond the epiphyseal plate
facial bones
bones of the face: lacrimal, mandibular, maxillary, nasal, vomer, and zygomatic
fissure
narrow, slit-like opening in or between bones
fontanelle
soft spot (incomplete bone formation) between the skull bones of an infant
foramen
opening or passage in bones where blood vessels and nerves enter and leave. the foramen magnum is the opening of the occipital bone through which the spinal cord passes
fossa
shallow cavity in a bone
haversian canals
minute spaces filled with blood vessels; found in compact bone
malleolus
round process on both sides of the ankle joint. the lateral malleolus is part of the fibula, and the medial malleolus is art of the tibia
manubrium
upper portion of the sternum; articulates with the medial aspect of the clavicle
mastoid process
round projection on the temporal bone behind the ear
medullary cavity
central, hollowed-out area in the shaft of a long bone
metaphysis
flared portion of along bone, between the diaphysis (shaft) and the epiphyseal plate (in this term, meta- means between)
olecranon
large process on the proximal end of the ulna; the point of the flexed elbow
osseous tissue
bone tissue
ossification
process of bone formation
osteoblast
bone cell that helps form bony tissue
osteoclast
bone cell that absorbs and removes unwanted bony tissue
periosteum
membrane surrounding bones; rich in blood vessels and nerve tissue
phosphorus
mineral substance found in bones in combination with calcium
pubic symphysis
area of confluence (coming together) of the two pubic bones in the pelvis. they are joined (sym- together, -physis - to grow) by a fibrocartilaginous disk
red bone marrow
found in cancellous bone; site of hematopoiesis
ribs
twelve pairs of curved bones that form the chest wall. true ribs are the first 7 pairs; false ribs are pairs 8 to 10; floating ribs are pairs 11 and 12
sella turcica
depression in the sphenoid bone where the pituitary gland is located
sinus
hollow air cavity within a bone
styloid process
pole-like process extending downward from the temporal bone on each side of the skull
suture
immovable joint between bones, such as the skull (cranium)
temporomandibular joint
connection on either side of the head between the temporal bone of the skull and mandibular bone of the jaw
trabeculae
supporting bundles of bony fibers in cancellous (spongy) bone
trochanter
large process at the neck of the femur; attachment site for tendons of the hip musculature
tubercle
rounded, small process on bone; attachment site for muscles and tendons
tuberosity
rounded process on bone; attachment site for muscles and tendons
vertebra
individual segment of the spienn composed of the vertebral body, vertebral arch, spinous process, transverse process, and lamina, enclosing the neural canal
xiphoid process
lower, narrow portion of the sternum
yellow bone marrow
fatty tissue found in the medullary cavity of most adult long bones