51 terms

# AP Human Geography, Rubenstein, Chap. 2

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Age distribution
The proportion of individuals of different ages within a population. You can use an age distribution to estimat survival by calculating the difference in proportion of individuals in succeeding age classes.
Agricultural revolution
the development of farming
Arithmetic Population Density
The total number of people divided by the total land area.
capacity
the amount of people an area can support
Census
A complete enumeration of a population.
Child Mortality Rate
A figure that describes the number of children that die between the first and fifth years of their lives in a given population.
Chronic Diseases
Generally long - lasting afflictions now more common because of higher life expectancies.
Crude Birth Rate (CBR)
The number of live births yearly per 1,000 people in a population. (natality)
Crude Death Rate (CDR)
The number of deaths yearly per 1,000 people in a population.
Demographic equation
NIR = CBR - CDR
Demographic momentum:
is the tendency for growing population to continue growing after a fertility decline because of their young age distribution. This is important because once this happens a country moves to a different stage in the demographic transition model.
Demographic Transistion
High birth rates and death rates are followed by plunging death rates, producing a huge net population gain, this is followed by the convergence of birth rates and death rates at a low overall level.
Demographic Transition model:
the steps through which a society progresses.
demography
the scientific study of population characteristics
Dependency ratio
the number of people who can't work
disease diffusion
How disease spreads in a population. Hierarchical diffusion spreads from urban to rural areas. Contagious is spread through the density of people.
Dot Map
Maps where one dot represents a certain number of phenomenon such as population.
Doubling Time
the time it takes for an area's population to double
Ecumene
the area of land occupied by humans
Epidemiologic transition
The a distinctive cause of death in each stage of the demographic transition. Explains how countries' population changes.
Eugenic Population Policies
Government policies designed to favor one racial sector over others.
Expansive Popluation Policies
Government policies that encourage large families and raise the rate of population growth.
Exponential growth
growth by a percentile instead of a static number
Infant Mortality Rate
The total number of deaths in a year among infants under one year old for every 1000 live births in a society.
J-curve
The shape of a line graph of population graph when growth is exponential.
Life Expectancy
A figure indicating how long, on average, a person may be expected to live.
Malthus, Thomas
British economist of late 1700's. considered the first to predict a population crisis.
medical revolution
the leap of medical knowledge in stage 2
Megalopolis
1) Term used to designate large coalescing supercities that are forming in diverse parts of the world. 2)
Mortality:
the rate at which people die
natality rate (NIR)
number of birth/ year to every 1000 people in the population
Natural Increase
Population growth measured as the excess of live births over deaths; does not reflect either emigrant or immigrant movements.
Natural increase rate (NIR)
CBR - CDR = NIR
Neo-Malthusians
group who built on Malthus' theory and suggested that people wouldn't just starve for lack of food, but would have wars about food and other scarce resources.
Overpopulation
too many people in one place for the resources available
physiological density
people supported by land / land area
Physiological Population Density
The number of people per unit of area of arable land, which is land suitable for agriculture.
Population Composition
Structure of population in terms of age, sex and other properties such as marital status and education.
Population Density
A measurement of the number of people per given unit of land.
Population Distribution
Description of locations on Earth's surface where populations live.
Population Explosion
The rapid growth of the world's human population during the past century, attended by ever- shorter doubling times and sccelerating rates of increase. 2) the sudden increase of population caused by the plummeting CDR in stage 2
Population projection
Estimation of future population growth, by extrapoliting from current trends and known growth factors.
Population Pyramids
A bar graph representing the distribution of population by age and sex.
Restrictive Popluation Policies
Government policies designed to reduce the rate of natural increase.
Sex ratio
the ratio of men to women
Standard of living
The goods a services and their distribution within a population
Stationary Population Level
The level at which a national population ceases to grow.
Sustainability
The level of development that can be maintained without depleting resources.
Total Fertility rate
the average number of children a woman has
underpopulation
A drop or decrease in a region's population.
Zero population growth (ZPG)
Where natural birth rate declines to equal crude birth rate and the natural rate of population approaches 0.