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48 terms

A&P Ch.14 Circulation of blood

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Arteries
(blood Vessel)
*Carry blood AWAY from heart TOWARD capillaries
*Red color/Have Oxygen
*Function: Distribute nutrients/gases carried in blood by way of HIGH PRESSURE
Veins
(Blood vessel)
*Carry blood TOWARD heart AWAY from capillaries
*Blue color/No oxygen
*Function: collect blood for return to heart
Capillaries
(Blood vessel)
*Microscopic vessels
*Carry blood from Arterioles to venules
*Function: serve as exchange vessels for nutrients,wastes,&fluids
Artery/vein Layers
1. Tunica Intima- Inner Layer(endothelium)
2.Tunica Media- middle layer /thick, smooth muscle(Blood pressure regulation)
3.Tunica Externa-outer layer/heavy
Disorders of Arteries
*Arteries must w/stand high pressure & remain free of blockage
*Arteriosclerosis,Aneurysm
Arteriosclerosis
*Hardening of arteries
*Lipids / other matter block arteries
*Thickening/calcification of arterial walls cause reduced blood flow
Ischemia
*Because of thickening/calcification (blood loss)
*May progress to necrosis (tissue death) then gangrene
*Tx: Vasodilators(vessel-relax. drugs)/Angioplasty(mechanical widening of vessels)
Aneurysm
*Abnormal widening of arterial wall
*Life-threatening
Cerebrovascular Accident (CVA)
Stroke- ischemia of brain tissue caused by emobolism(stuck)/hemorrhage
Disorders of Veins
*Low pressure vessels
1.Varicose Veins(varices)-enlarged veins blood pools
2. Hemorrhoids-Vericose veins in rectum
Tx: Surgical removal
Systemic Circulation
*Carries blood throughout body
*LV-Aorta-Sm Arteries-Arterioles-Capillaries-Venules-Vena Cavae-RA
Pulmonary Circulation
*Carries blood to & from lungs
*Deoxygenated blood-Lungs
*RV-Pulm.Arteries-Lungs-Pulm. Veins-LA
Blood Circulation
Flow of blood through vessels, arranges in complete circuit/circular pattern
Hepatic Portal Circulation
*Blood route through Liver
*After digestive organs Homeostasis
Fetal Circulation
Circulation before Birth
Blood Pressure
* "Push" force of blood in blood vessels
*Exists in all Blood Vessels (Highest) Arteries / (Lowest) Veins
Blood Pressure Gradient
"Hill"
*Cause blood to circulate High-Low pressure
*Low/Non-existent pressure -fatal if not tx
Hypertension (HTN)
*High Blood Pressure -pressure exceeds 140/90 mm Hg
*Can cause blood vessel to rupture
*Idiopathic
*Risk Factors: Genetics,age,stress,obesity
*Untreated: Heart disease,kidney failure,stroke
Factors that Influence Blood Pressure
1.Blood volume
2.Strength of heart contractions
3. Heart Rate
4.Blood Viscosity
5.Resistance to blood flow
Blood Volume
Large the volume more pressure exerted
Strength of Heart Contractions
*Affect Cardiac Output
*Stronger heart beat(increases) Weaker(decreases) pressure
Blood Viscosity
(Thickness)
Less than normal (Decreases) pressure
More than normal ( Increases) pressure
Resistance to blood flow
(Peripheral Resistance)
Vasomotor Mechanism- Vessel muscle contraction /relaxation
Central Venous pressure
*Pressure in Large Peripheral Veins
*Venous Return blood to Heart:
1.Strong beating Heart
2.Adequate Arterial Blood Pressure
3.Valves in Veins
4.Pumping Action/Skeletal Muscles as they contract
5.Changing Pressures in Chest Cavitities b/c breathing
Pulse
*Alternate expansion & recoil of blood vessel wall
Radial Pulse
Felt on wrist below thumb
Circulatory Shock
Failure of circulatory system to deliver oxygen to tissues resulting in cell impairment
Cardiogenic Shock
Heart failure
Neurgenic Shock
Nerve condition that relaxes (dialates) blood vessels
Anaphylactic Shock
Severe allergic reaction
Septic Shock
Complications of Septicemia
Toxins in blood b/c infection
Hypovelemic shock
Drop in blood pressure and blood volume
Volemic
volume of blood
Tourniquet
Pressure
1st blood vessel in
*Systemic-Aorta
*Pulmonary-Pulmonary artery
Lumen
Opening of vessels arteries
Systemic Arteries
1.Common Corotid - Head/Neck - Pulse
2. Aorta(Largest Artery)-Head/Neck/Upper Extremities
Systemic Veins
1.(Return Oxygen to Heart)
*Internal Jugular-Sinuses of brain
*External Jugular-Head/Neck
2.*Inferior Vena Cava -Lower Body vein
*Superior Vena Cava-Head/neck/Upper extremities vein
Venules
Small blood vessels collect blood from capillaries join to form veins
Angioplasty
Medical procedure vessels are opened
Ductus Arteriosus
Connect aorta & pulmonary artery
Gangrene
Necrotic tissue
Phlebitis
inflammation of vein
Polycythemia
Number RBC increase beyond normal blood viscosity
Pulmonary Embolism
Blockage of pulmonary artery by blood clot
Thrombi
abnormal blood clots
Fetal Cirulation
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Mechanical widening