28 terms

Genetics & Adaptations Vocabulary- Trevor Lewis

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Function
What a structure does or what its job is
Structure
Parts that make up an organ
Probability
The study of the likelihood of the occurrence of a particular event or offspring.The chance or PROBABILITY that an event will take place can be expressed as a fraction.
Environmental Change
A change or disturbance in the environment caused by natural ecological processes
Adaptation
A characteristic that helps an organism survive in its environment
Genetics
The study of heredity and the variation of inherited characteristics
Sexual Reproduction
Reproduction that requires two parents and produces offspring that will share characteristics from both parents
Offspring
A child/baby
Asexual Reproduction
A type of reproduction involving only one parent that produces genetically identical offspring by budding or by division of a single cell or the entire organism into two or more parts
DNA
Material that controls all the activities in a cell,contains the information to make new cells,and provides instructions for making protiens
Gene
Segments of DNA that carry hereditary instructions and are passed from parent to offspring; located on chromosomes
Chromosomes
A coiled structure of DNA and protein that forms in the cell nucleus during cell division
Generation
The period between birth of one generation and the birth of the next generation
Allele
Different forms of a single gene
Nucleus
The membrane-covered organelle found in eukaryotic cells; contains the cell's DNA and serves as a control center for the cell
Cell
A membrane-covered structure that has all the necessary for life
Dominant Trait
The trait observed when at least one dominant allele for a characteristic inherited
Recessive Trait
A trait that is apparent only when two recessive alleles for a characteristic inherited
Heredity
The passing of traits from parent to offspring
Co-Dominance
A relationship between two versions of a gene
Genotype
The inherited combination of alleles
Phenotype
Organism's inherited by appearance
Punnett Square
A diagram that is used to predict an outcome of a particular cross or breeding experiment
Heterozygous
Having two different alleles for a single trait
Homozygous
Two genes having a particular trait
Natural Selection
The process by which organisms with favorable traits survive and reproduce at a higher rate than organisms without the favorable trait
Traits
A distinguishing quality that can be passed down from one generation to another
Selective Breeding
Developing particular phenotypic traits by choosing which typically animal or plant males and females will sexually reproduce and have offspring together