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170 terms

Eye/ Ear

Chapter 12/13
STUDY
PLAY
aque/o
water
blephar/o
eyelid
conjunctiv/o
conjunctiva- to join together
corne/o, kerat/o
cornea
ir/o, irid/o
iris- colored circle
lacrim/o, dacry/o
tear
ocul/o, ophthalm/o, opt/o
eye
phac/o, phak/o
lens- lentil
phot/o
light
presby/o
old age
retin/o
retina
scler/o
sclera- hard
vitre/o
glassy
-opia
condition of vision
anterior chamber
fluid filled space between the cornea and the iris
aqueous humor
water liquid secreted at the ciliary body that fills the anterior and posterior chambers of the eye and provides nourishment for the cornea, iris, and lens
humor
fluid
choroid
vascular layer beneath the sclera that provides nourishment to the outer portion of the retina
ciliary body
ring of muscle behind the peripheral iris that controls the power of the lens
ciliary processes
epithelial tissue folds on the inner surface of the ciliary body that secrete aqueous humor
conjunctiva
joining together; mucous membrane that lines the eyelids and outer surface of the eyeball
cornea
transparent, anterior part of the eyeball covering the iris, pupil, and anterior chamber that functions to refract (bend) light to focus a visual image
eyelid (palpebra)
movable protective fold that opens and closes, covering the eye
fovea centralis
pinpoint depression in the center of the macula lutea that is the site of sharpest vision
fovea
pit
fundus (base)
interior surface of the eyeball including the retina, optic disk, macula, and posterior pole (curvature of the back of the eye)
iris
colored circle; colored part of the eye located behind the cornea that contracts and dilates to regulate light passing through the pupil
lacrimal gland
gland located in the upper outer region above the eyeball that secretes tears
lacrimal ducts
tubes that carry tears to the lacrimal sac
lens
transparent structure behind the pupil that bends and focuses light rays on the retina
lens capsule
capsule that encloses the lens
macula lutea
central region of the retina responsible for central vision; yellow pigment provides its color
lutea
yellow
nasolacrimal duct
passageway for tears from the lacrimal sac into the nose
optic disk
exit site of retinal nerve fibers, as well as the entrance point for retinal arteries and the exit point for retinal veins
optic nerve
nerve responsible for carrying impulses for the sense of sight from the retina to the brain
posterior chamber
space between the back of the iris and the front of the vitreous filled with aqueous fluid
pupil
black circular opening in the center of the iris through which light passes as it enters the eye
retina
innermost layer that perceives and transmits light to the optic nerve
cones
cone-shaped cells within the retina that are color sensitive and respond to bright light
rods
rod-shaped cells within the retina that respond to dim light
sclera
tough, fibrous, white outer coat extending from the cornea to the optic nerve
vitreous
jelly-like mass filling the inner chamber between the lens and retina that gives bulk to the eye
asthenopia
eyestrain
asthenia
weak condition
blepharospasm
involuntary contraction of the muscles surrounding the eye, causing uncontrolled blinking and lid squeezing
diplopia
double vision
exophthalmos, exophthalmus
abnormal protrusion of one or both eyeballs
lacrimation
secretion of tears
nystagmus
involuntary, rapid oscillating movement of the eyeball
nystagmos
a nodding
photophobia
extreme sensitivity to, and discomfort from, light
scotoma
blind spot in the vision
skotos
darkness
refractive errors
defects in the bending of light as it enters the eye, causing an improper focus on the retina
astigmatism
distorted vision caused by an oblong or cylindrical curvature of the lens or cornea that prevents light rays from coming to a single focus on the retina
hyperopia
farsightedness; difficulty seeing close objects when light rays extend beyond the proper focus on the retina
myopia
nearsightedness; difficulty seeing distant objects when light rays fall short of the proper focus on the retina
presbyopia
impaired vision owing to old-age loss of accommodation
accommodation
ability of the eye to adjust focus on near objects
ambylopia
lazy eye- decreased vision in early life due to a functional defect that can occur as a result of strabismus, refractive errors or trauma; usually occurs in one eye
ambyl/o
dim
aphakia
absence of the lens, usually after cataract extraction
blepharitis
inflammation of the eyelid
chalasis
a slackening
blepharoptosis
drooping of the eyelid usually caused by paralysis
chalazion
chronic nodular inflammation of a meibomian gland, usually the result of a blocked duct; commonly presents as swelling on the upper or lower eyelid
chalaza
hailstone
cataract
opaque clouding of the lens causing decreased vision
conjunctivitis
pinkeye; inflammation of the conjunctiva
dacryoadenitis
inflammation of the lacrimal gland
cyst/o
sac
dacryocystitis
inflammation of the tear sac
diabetic retinopathy
disease of the retina in diabetics characterized by capillary leakage, bleeding, and new vessel formation, leading to scarring and loss of vision
ectropion
outward turning of the rim of the eyelid
trop/o
turning
entropion
inward turning of the rim of the eyelid
glaucoma
group of diseases of the eye characterized by increased intraocular pressure that results in damage to the optic nerve, producing defects in vision
hordeolum
sty; an acute infection of a sebaceous gland of the eyelid
hordeum
barley
iritis
inflammation of the iris
keratitis
inflammation of the cornea
macular degeneration
breakdown or thinning of the tissues in the macula, resulting in partial or complete loss of central vision
pseudophakia
eye in which the natural lens is replaced with an artificial lens implant
pseudo
false
pterygium
fibrous growth of conjunctival tissue that extends onto the cornea
retinal detachment
separation of the retina from the underlying epithelium, disrupting vision and resulting in blindness if not repaired surgically
retinitis
inflammation of the retina
strabismus
crossed eyes
eso-
inward
tropo
turning
exo-
out
scleritis
inflammation of the sclera
trichiasis
misdirected eyelashes that rub on the conjunctiva or cornea
distance visual acuity
measure of the ability to see the details and shape of identifiable objects from a specified distance, typically using a Snellen chart
fluorescein angiography
visualization & photography of retinal and choroidal vessels made as fluorescein dye, which is injected into a vein, circulates through the eye
ophthalmoscopy
use of an ophthalmoscope to view the interior of the eye
refraction
measurement of refractive errors using a phoropter to determine best corrective vision and prescription for eye glasses or contact lenses
phoropter
instrument that holds corrective lenses in front of the eye to determine optical correction
sonography
use of high-frequency sound waves to detect pathology within the eye such as foreign bodies or a detached retina
tonometry
use of a toneometer to measure intraocular pressure, which is elevated in glaucoma
blepharoplasty
surgical repair of an eyelid
cataract extraction
excision of a cloudy lens from the eye
dacryocystectomy
excision of a lacrimal sac
enucleation
excision of an eyeball
iridectomy
excision of a portion of iris tissue
iridotomy
incision into the iris (usually with a laser) to allow for drainage of aqueous humor from the posterior to anterior chamber; used to treat a type of glaucoma
keratoplasty
corneal transplant
laser surgery
use of a laser to make incisions or destroy tissues
(LASIK)laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis
technique using the excimer laser to reshape the surface of the cornea to correct refractive errors such as myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism
(IOL) intraocular lens implant
implantation of an artificial lens to replace a defective natural lens
contact lens
small plastic curved disk with optical correction that fits over the cornea
eye instillation
introduction of medicated solution in the eye
eye irrigation
washing of the eye with water or other fluid
lacrimal sac
structure that collects tears before emptying into the nasolacrimal duct
ciliary muscle
smooth muscle portion of the ciliary body, which contracts to assist in near-vision capability
acous/o, audi/o
hearing
aer/o
air or gas
aur/i, ot/o
ear
cerumin/o
wax
salping/o
eustachian tube
tympan/o, myring/o
eardrum
-acusis
hearing condition
pinna
auricle (little ear) projected part of the external ear
external auditory meatus (canal)
external passage for sounds collected from the pinna to the tympanum
cerumen
waxy substance secreted by glands
TM-tympanic membrane
eardrum
malleus
hammer, 1st of 3 auditory ossicles of the middle ear
incus
anvil, middle of the 3 auditory ossicles of the middle ear
stapes
stirrup, last of the 3 auditory ossicles of the middle ear
eustachian tube
tube connecting the middle ear to the pharynx
oval window
membrane that covers the opening between the middle ear and inner ear
inner ear
structures and liquids that relay sound waves to the auditory nerve fibers
labyrinth
maze; inner ear consisting of bony and membranous labyrinths
cochlea
snail; coiled tubular structure of the inner ear
perilymph
fluid that fills the bony labyrinth of the ear
endolymph
fluid within the cochlear duct of the inner ear
semicircular canals
3 canals within the inner ear that contain specialized receptor cells that generate nerve impulses with body movement
otalgia, otodynia
earache
otorrhagia
bleeding from the ear
otorrhea
purulent drainage from the ear
tinnitus
jingling; ringing or buzzing in the ear
vertigo
a turning around, dizziness
otitis externa
inflammation of the external auditory canal
cerumen impaction
excessive wax buildup
myrinitis, tympanitis
inflammation of the eardrum
otitis media
inflammation of the middle ear
aerotitis media
inflammation of the middle ear from changes in the atmospheric pressure
acoustic neuroma
benign tumor of the auditory nerve
aplasia
condition of absence or malformation of inner ear structures during embryonic development
labyrinthitis
inflammation of the labyrinth
conductive hearing loss
hearing impairment caused by interference with sound or vibration
sensorineural hearing loss
hearing impairment caused by lesions or dysfunction of the auditory nerve
mixed hearing loss
combination of sensorineural and conductive hearing loss
presbycusis
hearing impairment in old age
audiometry
process of measuring hearing
audiometer
instrument to measure hearing
audiogram
record of hearing measurement
audiologist
specialist in the study of hearing impairments
auditory acuity testing
physical assessment of hearing
tuning fork
2-pronged, fork like instrument that vibrates when struck
otoscopy
use of an otoscope to examine the external auditory canal
microsurgery
surgery with the use of a microscope
myringotomy, myringostomy
incision into the eardrum
otoplasty
surgical repair of the external ear
stapedectomy
excision of the stapes to correct otosclerosis
tympanoplasty
vein graft of a scarred tympanic membrane to improve sound
auditory prosthesis
internal or external device that improves natural hearing
hearing aid
external amplifying device
cochlear implant
electronic device implanted into the coclea