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Language of Medicine Chapter 5 Pathology of the Digestive System

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Anorexia
Lack of appetite
Ascites
Abnormal accumulation of fluid in the abdomen
Borborygmus
plural: borborygmi
Rumbling or gurgling noise produced by the movement of gas, fluid, or both in the gastrointestinal tract
Constipation
Difficulty in passing stools (feces)
Diarrhea
Frequent passage of loose, watery stools
Dysphagia
Difficutly in swallowing
Eructation
Gass expelled from the stomach through the mouth
Flatus
Gas expelled through the anus
Hematochezia
Passage of fresh, bright red blood from the rectum
Jaundice
(icterus)
Yellow-orange coloration of the skin and whites of the eyes caused by high levels of bilirubin in the blood- hyperbilirubinemia
Melena
Black, tarry stools; feces containing digested blood
Nausea
Unpleasant sensation in the stomach associated with a tendency to vomit
Steatorrhea
Fat in the feces; frothy, foul-smelling fecal matter
Aphthous Stomatis
Inflammation of the mouth with small, painful uclers
Dental Caries
Tooth Decay
Herpetic Stomatitis
Inflammation of the mouth caused by infection with the herpesvirus
Oral Leukoplakia
White plaques or patches on the mucosa of the mouth
Periodontal Disease
Inflammation and degeneration of gums, teeth, and surrounding bone
Achalasia
Failure of the lower esophagus sphincter (LES) muscle to relax
Esophageal Cancer
Malignant tumor of the esophagus
Esophageal Varices
Swollen, varicose veins at the lower end of the esophagus
Gastric Cancer
Malignant tumor in the stomach
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease
(GERD)
Solids and fluids return to the mouth from the stomach
Hernia
Protrusion of an organ or part through the muscle normally containing it
Peptic ulcer
Open sore in the lining of the stomach or duodenum
Anal fistula
Abnormal tube-like passageway near the anus
Colonic Polyps
Polyps (benign growths) protrued from the mucous membrane of the colon
Colorectal Cancer
Adenocarcinoma of the colon or rectum, or both
Crohn disease (Chrone's)
Chronic inflammation of the intestinal tract (terminal ileum and colon)
Diverticulosis
Abnormal outpouchings in the intestinal wall
Dysentry
Painful, inflamed intestines commonly caused by bacterial infections
Hemorrhoids
Swollen, twisted, varicose veins in the rectal region
Ileus
Loss of peristalsis with resulting obstruction of the intestines
Paralytic Ileus
Acute, transient loss of peristalsis
Intussusception
Telescoping of the intestines
Irritable bowel sydrome (IBS)
Group of gastrointestinal symptoms associated with stress and tension
Ulcerative Colitis
Chronic inflammation of the colon with presence of ulcers
Volvulus
Twistin of the intestine on itself
Cholelithiasis
Gallstones in the gallbladder
Cirrhosis
Chronic degenerative disease of the liver
Pancreatic Cancer
Malignant tumor of the pancreas
Pancreatitis
Inflammation of the pancreas
Viral hepatitis
Inflammation of the liver caused by a virus