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Chapter 22.2 Pulmonary ventilation
Terms in this set (29)
What are the 3 steps of respiration?
External (pulmonary) respiration
Internal (tissue) respiration
-movement of air between the atmosphere and the alveoli
-Inhalation and exhalation
-The changes in pressure are due to changes in the thoracic volume.
Earth's Atmosphere gases
Carbon Dioxide 0.04%
What is P=F/A?
Pressure is measured as Force applied per unit Area.
What is a Barometer
an instrument that measures atmospheric pressure
What does air pressure vary on?
Altitude and temperature
Atmospheric pressure( Patm)
Sea Level- 760 mmHg= 1 atmosphere
High altitudes= < Pressure
Low Altitudes= > Pressure
Applies to containers with changeable volume, Thoracic cage.
Volume and pressure are inversely related
> in Volume= < in pressure
Negative respiratory pressure= less than Patm (atmospheric)
positive respiratory pressure= greater than Patm ( atmospheric)
Zero respiratory pressure = Patm ( atmospheric)
Intrapulmonary pressure ( Ppul)
-Fluctuates when breathing
-Eventually equalizes with Atmospheric ( Patm)
Intraplueral Pressure (Pip)
-Pressure in pleural cavity
-Fluctuates with breathing
-ALWAYS BE NEGATIVE to prevent lung collapse
-Excess plural fluid is pumped out by lymphatics
-if plural fluid accumulates it creates a positive intropulmonary pressure which results in lung collapse.
Opposing forces for Intraplueral pressure
-Elastic recoil of lungs
-Surface tension of alveolar fluid
-Elasticity of chest wall pulls thorax outward
Pulmonary Pressure - Intraplueral pressure
-Keeps lungs open
-Greater in this pressure = larger lungs
Air flows from high to low pressure
decrease in alveoli pressure is accomplished through the increase in the volume of the lungs, mechanical coupling
Most important muscle for inspiration
Some shaped skeletal muscle inverted by the phrenic nerve
Second most important muscle for inspiration
These muscles elevate the ribs during contraction, increasing the chest cavity
Accessory muscles in Active Inhalation
-Elevates the sternum
-Elevates the first two ribs
-Elevates ribs 3-5
Pressure difference is opposite of inhalation
- Lung pressure is greater than atmosphere pressure
Passive exhalation- quiet breathing ( inward forces)
Forceful exhalation ( yelling, exercise)
-Muscles involved in exhalation
-Abdominals= moves ribs downward and compresses the abdominal viscera. forces diaphram upward.
-Internal intercoastals=Pulls ribs downward.
Intrapulmonary presuure can exceed atmospheric pressure during a cough.
Air in plueral caivty
Intraplueral pressure goes from -4 to 0, lung will collapse on itself.
Three factors ease ventilation
-Surface tension of alveolar fluid
-Compliance of the lungs
Which fore acts against the other two forces?
a. the elasticity of the chest wall
b. lung elasticity
c. Alveolar fluid surface tension
a. The elasticity of the chest wall
Surface tension of alveolar fluid
Accounts for 2/3 of lung elastic recoil
-a mixture of phospholipids and lipoproteins present in alveolar fluid.
- Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS)
-Defiency of surfactant in premature infants
-Alveoli collapse due to high surface tension
in babies born prematurely, pulmonary surfactant maynot be present in adequate amounts _____?
a.In the Conducting zone structures of the lungs
b.due to insufficient exocytosis in the type II alveolar cells
c.to permit adequate surface tension in the aveoli
d.because the presence of collapsed alveoli prevents surfactant production
b: due to insufficient exocytosis in the type II alveolar cells
Lung compliance dependent upon 2 factors.....
If the compliance of the thoracic wall is decreased, ______.
a. the intraplueral pressure would not decrease normally during inhalation
b. the intrapulmonary pressure would remain lower than the atmospheric pressure
c. the airway resistance would be decreased
d. none of the listed responses is correct
the intraplueral pressure would not decrease normally during inhalation
Decrease in compliance
restrict lung expansion resulting in a decrease in lung volume, in increased work of breathing, and inadequate ventilation and/or oxygenation.
-Pulmonary fibrosis (ex)
-Defiency in sufactant (ex)
Decrease compliance of lungs
Pulmonary Edema (
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