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Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology

Chapter 2 Basic Chemistry and Chapter 3 Cells and Tissues
magnifier of the image of small objects
property of microscope which allows objectives to be changed without having to refocus
Total Magnification
eypiece lens magnification x objective lens magnification
a small platform on a microscope where the specimen is mounted for examination
light passes through one or more lenses to produce an enlarged image of a specimen
focuses light through specimen
Diaphragm (iris)
The part of a microscope that allows the user to cange the amoutn fo light being shone into the specimen, the user would want to change the amount of light (by turning the diap according to the transparency of thier slide
Coarse adjustment Knob
moves the stage up and down to allow for focusing
Fine Adjustment Knob
moves the stage very slightly to bring the image into sharper focus
Arm (Microscope)
Supports the body and stage and is attached to the base.
Ocular Lens
Magnifies the object, usually by 10X. Also known as the eyepiece, this is the part you look through to view the object
Objective Lens
the part of a compound light microscope that is located directly above the specimen and that magnifies the image of the specimen
The basic unit of all living things
Plasma Membrane
thin outer boundary of a cell that regulates the traffic of chemicals between the cell and its surroundings
a jellylike fluid inside the cell in which the organelles are suspended
a part of the cell containing DNA and RNA and responsible for growth and reproduction, a part of the cell containing DNA and RNA and responsible for growth and reproduction
threadlike structure within the nucleus containing the genetic information that is passed from one generation of cells to the next
small structures in the cytoplasm that do special jobs
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
Manufactures membrane lipids- pancreatic cells= has ribosomes attached
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
An endomembrane system where lipids are synthesized, calcium levels are regulated, and toxic substances are broken down.
an organelle in the cytoplasm of a living cell
Golgi Apparatus
stack of membranes in the cell that modifies, sorts, and packages proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum
powerhouse of the cell, produces energy (ATP) from oxygen and sugar(Cellular respiration)
Structure: A small, membrane bound organelle filled with digestive enzymes.
Function: Digestion of proteins, old organelles, food, dead cells, and other materials.
network of protein filaments within some cells that helps the cell maintain its shape and is involved in many forms of cell movement
One of two tiny structures located in the cytoplasm of animal cells near the nuclear envelope; play a role in cell division.
short structures projecting from a cell and containing bundles of microtubules that move a cell through its surroundings or move fluid over the cell's surface
long, thin, whip-like structures, with a core of microtubules, that enable some cells to move
Cell Division (Mitosis)
indirect cell division involving complex changes in the nucleus (there are 5 phases)
the period of the cell cycle during which the nucleus is not undergoing division, typically occurring between mitotic or meiotic divisions
first and longest phase of mitosis, during which the chromosomes become visible and the centrioles separate and take up positions on the opposite sides of the nucleus
the stage in mitosis or meiosis in which the duplicated chromosomes line up along the equatorial plate of the spindle
the third phase of mitosis, during which the chromosome pairs separate and move toward opposite poles
the final stage of mitosis or meiosis, during which a nuclear membrane forms around each set of new chromosomes
groups of similar cells that perform a specific function in an organism
Epithelial Tissue
One of the four basic tissue types in the body (epithelial, connective, muscle, and nervous). Epithelial tissue is a lining and covering tissue (e.g. skin, the lining of the stomach and intestines, the lining of the urinary tract, etc. ) or a glandular tissue (e.g. the liver, the pancreas, the ovaries, etc.)
Simple Squamous Epithelium
A single layer of thin, flat cells. It is often found where diffusion or filtration take place (alveoli in lungs, kidneys). It also covers organs in the pericardial, pleural, and peritoneal cavities.
Simple Cuboidal Epithelium
A single layer of cube-like cells that carry out active transport, facilitated diffusion, or secretion. They are found in mitochondria and kidneys. They often have cilia and microvilli on the surface.
Simple Columnar Epithelium
A single layer of tall, thin cells. These large cells contain organelles that enable them to perform complex functions. In the intestines, it produces and secretes mucus and digestive enzymes. These often have cilia and microvilli on the surface.
Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium
Epithelial tissue that only appears to be stratified. There is only one layer of cells, but there often appears to be two or more layers. This is because some of the cells are tall and reach the free surface, while others are short and do not reach the surface. These cells line certain glands and ducts, auditory tubes, the nasal cavity, and trachea. There is cilia located on the free surface of these cells.
Stratified Squamous Epithelium
thick membrane with several cell layers, surface cells can contain keratin. protects underlying tissues in areas that can be rubbed or injured
Transitional Epithelium
Description: resembles both stratified squamous and stratified cuboidal; basal cells cuboidal or columner; surface cells dome shaped or squamous like, depending on degree of organ stretch

Function: stretches readily and permits distension of urinary organ by contained urine

Location: lines the ureters, urinary bladder, and part of the urethra
Connective Tissue
tissue of mesodermal origin consisting of e.g. collagen fibroblasts and fatty cells
Connective Tissue Cells
Large extracellular( Matrix) material. connecting, anchoring and supporting body structures. Secrete protein fibers (elastin) into the ground substance.Blood and lymph also "connect" various parts of the body ( most diverse tissue cells)
connective tissue cells that produce fibrous components of extracellular matrix like collagen and elastin
fat cells
the body substance in which tissue cells are embedded
small spaces between the lamellae which contain osteocytes
Ground Substance
the unstructured material that fills the space between the cells and contains the fibers
Connective Tissue Fibers
collagen, elastic, reticular
Collagen Fibers
one of the 3 components of the connective tissue matrix. these are strong and ropelike and can withstand pulling bc of their great tensile strength
Elastic Fibers
Long threads made of the protein elastin. provide a rubbery quality to the extracellular matrix that complements the nonelastic strength of collagenous fibers.
Reticular Fibers
fine, collagenous fibers whose networks surround and support the soft tissue of organs, and stabilize the positions of functional cells
Types of Connective Tissue
Connective Tissue Proper
Fluid Connective Tissue
Supporting Connective Tissue
Loose Connective Tissue
The most widespread connective tissue in the vertebrate body. It binds epithelia to underlying tissues and functions as packing material, holding organs in place.
Areolar Connective Tissue
Most plentiful connective tissue in body, supports and binds other tissues, holds body fluids, defends body against infection, stores nutrients as fat, Contains collagen, reticular and elastic fibers, ground substance holds fluid, defense cells fight infection as areolar tissue contains Macrophages(big eaters), Plasma cells(secrete antibodies), Mast cells (inflammatory process), and Neutrophils, Lymphocytes, and eosinophils. A minor function is that it's fat cells store nutrients.
Adipose Tissue
a kind of body tissue containing stored fat that serves as a source of energy
Reticular Tissue
Loose connective tissue in which reticular fibres predominate, forming the stroma of lymph nodes, the spleen, bone marrow, and the liver.
Dense Connective Tissue
Connective tissue with large amounts of either collagen fibers (making them strong) or elastic fibers, or both. Dense tissues are typically strong (e.g. bone, cartilage, tendons, etc.)
a connective tissue that is more flexible than bone and that protects the ends of bones and keeps them from rubbing together
cartilage cells that divide in order to cause bone growth, mature cartilage cells; produce collagen matrix
small spaces between the lamellae which contain osteocytes
Hyaline Cartlage
has a matrix containing strong collagen fibers. found in structures that withstand tension and pressure, such as the pads between the vertebrae in the backbone and the wedges in the knee joint.
rigid connective tissue that makes up the skeleton of vertebrates
Muscle Tissue
A body tissue that contracts or shortens, making body parts move.
Nervous Tissue
Integumentary System
the organ system that forms a protective covering on the outside of the body
an outer protective covering such as the skin of an animal or a cuticle or seed coat or rind or shell
the outer layer of the skin covering the exterior body surface of vertebrates
90% of epidermis cells, migrates from lower levels, make keratin, Keratin helps protect skin, cells are sloughed off
a fibrous scleroprotein that occurs in the outer layer of the skin and in horny tissues such as hair feathers nails and hooves
the protective skin pigment responsible for the tan, brown, or black color of human skin; produced in abundance upon exposure to ultraviolet radiation
second layer of skin, holding blood vessels, nerve endings, sweat glands, and hair follicles
It is the lowermost layer of the integumentary system in vertebrates. Types of cells that are found in the hypodermis are Fibroblasts, Adipose Cells, and Macrophages
Accessory Organs
organs that food does not pass through and produce enzymes for digestion
any of the cylindrical filaments characteristically growing from the epidermis of a mammal
Hair Follicle
a small tubular cavity containing the root of a hair
Arrector Pili
muscle that surrounds each hair follicle; contraction may cause goose bumps
Sebaceous Gland
a cutaneous gland that secretes sebum (usually into a hair follicle) for lubricating hair and skin
Sweat Glands
help regulate body temperature and water content by secreting sweat
Apocrine Sweat Glands
produce true sweat plus fatty substances and proteins; found in the axillary (armpit) and anogenital areas of the body
Eccrine Sweat Glands
most numerous, important, and wide spread of the sweat glands, mostly on forehead, upper lip, palms and soles, not hair follicles, regulate temperature,