Reticulocyte is a stage in the development of __________.
1. lymphocytes 2. megakaryocytes 3. red blood cells 4. neutrophil
increased elasticity of the fibrous skeleton
As the heart ages, which of these changes is NOT normally seen?
1. decreased cardiac output 2. coronary arteriosclerosis 3. decreased ejection fraction 4. increased elasticity of the fibrous skeleton
Red blood cells (RBCs) are removed from the circulation after about __________.
1. 1 year 2. 1 day 3. 120 days 4. 30 days
Which of the following is NOT a category of endocrine gland stimulus?
a) neural b) enzyme c) hormonal d) humoral
d) binding to specific receptors and employing the services of G proteins and cAMP.
The second-messenger mechanism of hormone actin operates by _______.
a) not responding to a feedback mechanism b) synthesizing more of the hormone than is actually needed c) increasing the basal metabolic rate in the target organ d) binding to specific receptors and employing the services of G proteins and cAMP.
c) entering some cells and binding to intracellular receptors within the nuclei
Thyroid hormone exerts its influence by________.
a) causing a reduction in the number of blood vessel adrenergic receptors, and therefore decreasing blood pressure b)exerting only a minor effect on body metabolism c) entering some cells and binding to intracellular receptors within the nuclei d) acting to decrease basal metabolic rate
Which of the following is NOT a steroid-based hormone?
a) estrogen b) cortisone c) epinephrine d) aldosterone
c) 7.35 - 7.45
What is the average normal pH range of blood?
a) 4.65 - 4.75 b) 8.35 - 8.45 c) 7.35 - 7.45 d) 7.75 - 7.85
Which blood type is called the universal donor?
a) AB b) O c) A d) B
Which of the following is NOT a phase of hemostasis?
a)coagulation b) platelet plug formation c) fibrinolysis d) vascular spasm
c) They are nucleated
Which of the following is chracteristic of all leukocytes?
a) They have cytoplasmic granules b) They are phagocytic c) They are nucleated d) They are the most numerous of the formed elements in blood. d) all of the above
Blood is a ________.
a) homogeneous compound b) suspension c) heterogeneous compound d) colloid
c) left atrium
Blood within) the pulmonary veins returns to the ____.
a) right atrium b) right ventricle c) left atrium d) left ventricle
c) The AV valves are supported by chordae tendineae so that regurgitation of blood into the atria during ventricular contraction does not occur.
Select the correct statement about the heart valves.
a) The tricuspid valve divides the left atrium from the left ventricle. b) Aortic and pulmonary valves control the flow fo blood into the heart. c) The AV valves are supported by chordae tendineae so that regurgitation of blood into the atria during ventricular contraction does not occur. d) The mitral valve separates the right atrium from the right ventricle.
c) pumps blood against a greater resistance
The fact that the left ventricle of the heart is thicker that the right ventricle reveals that it ____.
a) sends blood through a smaller valve b) pumps a greater volume of blood c) pumps blood against a greater resistance d) expands the thoracic cage
b) papillary muscles
Small muscle masses attached to the chordae tendineae are the ______.
a) trabeculae carneae b) papillary muscles c) pectinate muscles d) venae cavae
b) Ventricles are in diastole
Which of the events below does NOT occur when the semilunar valves are open?
a) Blood enters pulmonary arteries and the aorta b) Ventricles are in diastole c) Ventricles are in systole d) AV valves are closed
c) atrial depolarization
The P wave of a normal electrocardiogram indicates ______.
a) ventricular b) ventricular repolarization c) atrial depolarization d) atrial repolarization
d) coronary arteries
The source of blood carried to capillaries in the myocardium would be the _____.
a) coronary veins b) fossa ovalis c) coronary sinus d) coronary arteries
c) decreased delivery of oxygen
If cardiac muscle is deprived of its normal blood supply, damage would primarily result from ____.
a) a lack of nutrients to feed into metabolic pathways b) a decrease in the number of available mitochondria for energy production c) decreased delivery of oxygen d) an inadequate supply of lactic acid
a) the heart rate would increase by about 25 beats per minute
If the vagal nerves to the heart were cut, the result would be that _____.
a) the heart rate would increase by about 25 beats per minute b) parasympathetic stimulation would increase, causing a decrease in heart rate c) the AV node would become the pacemaker of the heart d) the heart would stop, since the vagal nerves trigger the heart to contract
b) pulmonary trunk
Which vessel of the heart receives blood during right ventricular systole?
a) venae cavae b) pulmonary trunk c) pulmonary veins d) aorta
b) nitric acid
Which of the followingchemicals does NOT help regulate blood pressure?
a) ADH b) nitric acid c) atrial natriuretic peptide d) angiotension II
Permitting the exchange of nutrients and gases between the blood and tissue cells is the primary function of _______.
a) arterioles b) capillaries c) arteries d) veins
d) systolic pressure minus diastolic pressure
The pulse pressure is _______.
a) systolic pressure plus diastolic pressure b) diastolic pressure plus 1/3 (systolic pressure plus diastolic pressure) c) systolic pressure divided by diastolic pressure d) systolic pressure minus diastolic pressure
c) tunica intima
Histologically, the ______ is squamous epithelium supported by a sparse connective tissue layer.
a) tunica externa b) tunica adventitia c) tunica intima d) tunica media
d) urinary output
Factors that aid venous return include all EXCEPT ____.
a) pressure changes in the thorax b) activity of skeletal muscles c) venous valves d) urinary output
a) right side of the head and neck and right upper arm
A thrombus (blood clot) in the first branch of the arch of the aorta would affect the flow of blood to the _____.
a) right side of the head and neck and right upper arm b) left upper arm c) left side of the head and neck d) myocardium of the haert
d) changes in arterial pressure
the baroreceptors in the carotid sinus and aortic arch are sensitive to which of the following?
a) an increase in oxygen levels b) a decrease in oxygen levels c) a decrease in carbon dioxide d) changes in arterial pressure
a) lymph nodes
Small organs associated with lymphatic vessels are termed _____.
a) lymph nodes b) axillary nodes c) lymph follicles d) cisterna chyli b)
Which of the following would NOT be classified as a lymphatic structure?
a) tonsils b) pancreas c) Peyer's patches of the instestine d) spleen
a) skeletal muscle contrations and differences in thoracic pressures due to respiratory movement
Both lymph and venous blood flow are heavily dependent on ______.
a) skeletal muscle contrations and differences in thoracic pressures due to respiratory movement b) contraction of the vessels themselves c) the pumping action of the heart d) two-way valves
c) plasma cells
Antibodies that act against a particular foreign substance are released by ______.
a) lymph nodes b) medullary cords c) plasma cells d) T lymphocytes
d) severe localized edema distal to the blockage
When the lymphatic structures are blocked due to tumors, the result is ______.
a) increased pressure in the lymphatics proximal to the blockage b) abnormally high lymph drainage from the distal region c) shrinkage of tissues distal to the blockage due to inadequate delivery of lymph d) severe localized edema distal to the blockage
d) lingual tonsils
The tonsils located at the base of the tongue are the ____.
a) palatine tonsils b) pharyngeal tonsils c) Peyer's tonsils d) lingual tonsils
c) passage of IgG antibodies from a pregnant mother to her fetus
a) exposure to an antigen b) booster shot of vaccine c) passage of IgG antibodies from a pregnant mother to her fetus d) infusion of weakened viruses
________ predominate at the sites of chronic infections.
a) Macrophages b) B cells c) Eosinophils d) Basophils
c) protects cells that have not yet been infected by viruses
what is the role of the interferon in defense against disease?
a) activates the complement mechanism b) protects cells that have not yet been infected by bacteria c) protects cells that have not yet been infected by viruses d) activates the inflammatory process
a) function in the adaptive immune system activation
Helper T cells _____.
a) function in the adaptive immune system activation b) often function to decrease the immune response c) release B7 proteins d) bind tightly to target cells and release a lymphotoxin called perforin
a) natural killer cells
Cancer cells and virus-infected body cells can be killed before activation of adaptive immunity by _____.
a) natural killer cells b) T lymphocytes c) pinocytosis d) B lymphocytes
d) Antigens only come from microbes
Which of the statements below does NOT describe antigens?
a) antigrens exhibit immunogenicity and reactivity. b) antigens can include proteins, nucleic acids, lipoproteins, glycoproteins, and certain large polysaccharides. c) the parts of antigen molecules that initiate immune responses are called epitopes or antigenic determinants d) Antigens only come from microbes
What structure in the fetal heart allows blood to flow from the right atrium directly to the left atrium?
The ____ valve of the heart has three valves with chordae tendineae.
the third major branch of the aortic _____ artery.
____ pressure is the difference between systolic and diastolic pressure.
Prevents backflow into the left ventricle.
Prevents backflow into the left atrium.
Prevents backflow into the right atrium.
pulmonary semilunar valves
Prevents backflow into the right ventricle.
b) greater than the pressure in the atmosphere
Air moves out of the lungs when the pressure inside the lungs is
a) greater than the intra-alveolar pressure b) greater than the pressure in the atmosphere c) equal to the pressure in the atmosphere d) less than the pressure in the atmosphere
b) interfering with the cohesiveness of water molecules, thereby reducing the surface tension of alveolar fluid
Surfactant helps to prevent the alveoli from collapsing by _____.
a) warming the air before it enters b) interfering with the cohesiveness of water molecules, thereby reducing the surface tension of alveolar fluid c) humidifying the air before it enters d) protecting the surface of alveoli from dehydration and other environmental variations
d) increase of carbon dioxide
The most powerful respiratory stimulus for breathing in ta healthy person is _______.
a)pH (acidosis) b) loss of oxygen in tissues c) pH (alkalosis) d) increase of carbon dioxide
d) only about 1.5% of the oxygen carried in dissolved from
In the plasma, the quantity of oxygen in solution is _____.
a) about equal to the oxygen combined with hemoglobin b) not present except where it is combined with carrier molecules c) greater than the oxygen combined with hemoglobin d) only about 1.5% of the oxygen carried in dissolved from
c) exchanged during normal breathing
Tidal volume is air _____.
a) forcible expelled after normal expiration b) remaining in the lungs after forced expiration c) exchanged during normal breathing d) inhaled after normal inspiration
e) lower respiratory tract
The trachea, bronchi, bronchioles and alveoli all make up the ______.
a) upper respiratory tract B0 alveoli of the respiratory tract c) internal respiratory tract d) respiratory mucosa e) lower respiratory tract
c) inspiratory reserve
The amount of air that can be inspired above the tidal volume is called ______.
a) vital capacity b) expiratory reserve c) inspiratory reserve d) reserve air
the amount of air that can in inspired above the tidal volume is called ______.
a) trachea b) oropharynx c) nasal cavity d) larynx e) nasopharynx
a) respiratory exchanges are made through the placenta.
Because the lungs are filled with fluid during fetal life, which of the following statements is true regarding respiratory exchange?
a) respiratory exchanges are made through the placenta. b) because the lungs develop later in gestation, fetuses do not need a mechanism for respiratory exchange c) respiratory exchanges are not necessary d) respiratory exchanges are made through the ductus arteriosus
b) as the bicarbonate ion in the plasma after first entering the red blood cells
How is the majority of carbon dioxide carried in blood?
a) chemically combined with the heme portion of hemoglobin b) as the bicarbonate ion in the plasma after first entering the red blood cells c) chemically combined with the amino acids of hemoglobin as carbaminohemoglobin in the red blood cells d) as carbonic acid in the plasma
Oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged in the lungs and through all cell membranes by _____.
a) osmosis b) diffusino d) active transport d) filtration
Which vitamin requires intrinsic factor in order to be absorbed?
a) B12 b) C c) K d) A
secreting excess albumin
The kidney does all of these EXCEPT ______
a) regulating plasma electrolytes b) secreting excess albumin c) regulating blood volume d) helping stabilize blood pH
from glomerulus to glomerular capsule
The step in kidney function where fluid is forced out of the blood is ____
a) from afferent arteriole to glomerulus b) from PCT to DCT c) from glomerulus to glomerular capsule d) from glomerular capsule to PCT
Urine flows first from the papilla to the _____
a) renal pelvis b) urethra c) major calyces d) minor calyces
One of the organic substances NOT normally excreted by the kidney is ________
a) glucose b) urea c) creatinine d) uric acid
The reabsorption of glucose from the filtrate is done by ____
a) cotransport b) counter transport c) facilitrated diffusion d) active transport
a decrease in urine volume but a increase in solute concentration
Anti-diuretic hormone (ADH) causes
a) an increase in both urine volume and solute concentration b) a decrease in urine volume but a increase in solute concentration c) an increase in urine volume but a decrease in solute concentration d) a decrease in both urine volume and solute concentration
renal pelvis to the urinary bladder
TGhe ureters extend from the _______
a) urinary bladder to the urethra b) renal pelvis to the urinary bladder c) minor calyces to the major calyces d) nephrons to the renal pelvis
increased sensitivity to ADH
With advancing years ,the urinary system developes all of these problems EXCEPT _____
a) a decrease if GFR b) urinary retention c) increased sensitivity to ADH d) increased frequency of infection
In addition to the urinary system, bodily wastes are removed by all of theses systems EXCEPT the _______
a) endocrine system b) respiratory system c) digestive system d) integumentary system
Which of these is NOT part of the maintenance of normal volume of body fluids?
a) acid-base balance b) electrolyte balance c) nutrient balance d) fluid balance
Which of these is NOT a component of the extracellular fluid compartment?
a) blood plasma b) blood cells c) cerebrospinal fluid d) interstitial fluid
Which of these hormones has little direct effect on water balance?
a) anti-diuretic hormone b) aldosterone c) natriretic peptides d) testosterone
water will move from the ICF to the ECF and cells will shrink
If the extracellular fluid (ECF) is made hypertonic, _______
a) water will move from the ECF to the ICF and cells will swell b) water will move from the ECF to the ICF and cells will shrink c) water will move from the ICF to the ECF and cells will shrink d) water will move from the ICF to the ECF and cells will swell
amount of sodium in the diet
The rate of uptake of sodium ion across the digestive membrane is directly proportional to the ________
a) loss of sodium in the feces b) loss of sodium in the sweat c) amount of sodium in the diet d) loss of sodium in the urine
All of these hormones are produced by the placenta
Which of these hormones is produced by the placenta?
a) progesterone b) relaxin c) human chorionic gonadotropin d) All of these hormones are produced by the placenta.