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When describing the male urinary anatomy, the portion of the male urethra that is closest to the bladder is the ________ portion.


In the majority of cases, delayed puberty is due to

slow maturation

Occurence of gastroesophageal reflux is highest in which pediatric population?

premature infants

The most common bacterial STD in the US is


Symptoms of prostatitis are similar to symptoms of


HPV infection can result in a higher risk of developing which of the following cancers?


The major difference between male and female sex hormone production is that

LH has no apparent action in the male

The ususal site of fertilization is the

ampulla of the fallopian tubes

In females, which hormone promotes the formation of channels in the mucous of the cervical os to facilitate sperm movement in the uterus?


Wilms tumors are tumors found in the


The most commonly occuring cancer of the female reproductive tract is ________ cancer.


What role do the kidneys play in Vitamin D function?

activate intestinally absorbed vitamin D

Anemia accompanies chronic renal failure due to

inadequte production of erythropoietin

Acute pancreatitis often manifests with pain to which of the following regions?


Digested fats are primarily absorbed into the


Progesterone is secreted primarily by the

corpus luteum

Menstration is followed by the ________ phase of the menstrual cycle.


Prolonged diarrhea is more serious in children than adults because

fluid reserves are lower in children

A 13 year old female confides to her mother that she binge eats and induces vomitting to prevent weight gain. This disease is referred to as

bullimia nervosa

During the menstrual cycle, when estrogen and progesterone levels drop, the endometrium enters the ________ phase.


A 30 year old female with newly diagnosed PCOS is being counseled by her OB-GYN. They physician indicates that this condition often results in


The hormone that plays a role in breast milk ejection (letdown) during lactation is


Endometrial thickening during the proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle is stimulated by increased levels of


The most common type of renal stone is composed of


One substance associated with puberty in males and females is which of the following?


A 75 year old male reports to his PCP loss of urine with coughing, sneezin, or laughing. What is the likely dx?

stress incontinence

Spermatogenesis occurs in the

seminiferous tubules

In regard to Wilms tumor, which of the following clinical conditions is often associated with this disease?


Absorption of nutrients from the intestine occurs initially through the


The function of the acinar cells of the pancreas is to secrete


The most common cause of acute renal failure is which of the following?

hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS)

A 30 year old obese female underwent gastric resection in an attempt to lose weight. Which of the following complications could the surgery cause?


Reflux esophagitis is defined as a(n)

inflammatory response to gastroesophageal reflux

An important risk factor in the development of benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) is

increased age

Which sphincter, when it relaxes, allows bile to flow into the duodenum?

sphincter of Oddi

In the male anatomy, which paired glands lie posterior to the unrinary bladder?

seminal vesicles

Which of the GI cancers has the highest rate of incidence and is responsible for the highest number of deaths?


The thick middle layer of the uterine wall is called the


Which of the following signs is usually the first clinical manifestations of breast cancer?

a painless lump

Which of the following is the most common disorder associated with upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding?

esophageal varices

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