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Hole's Anatomy Ch. 6

Midterm (ch. 1-6)
STUDY
PLAY
Cyanosis usually is the result of a reduction in _____.
melanin
hemoglobin
oxygen levels
the number of blood vessels
oxygen levels
It is the body's __________________ glands that respond to higher body temperature and release water to the skin surface.
sebaceous
eccrine
apocrine
ceruminous
eccrine
The amount of blood supply is directly proportional to the ability of a cell to divide and remain vital.
true
The process of keratinization is directly related to the waterproofing function of the dermis.
true
A decubitus ulcer is a bedsore caused by an infectious agent or toxic organism.
false
Increased exposure to sunlight actually maintains healthy skin and reduces the effects of aging.
false
The dermis of the face is attached to skeletal muscle fibers that cause the skin to move during facial gestures.
true
The _____ separates the epidermis from the dermis.
basement membrane
The youngest cells would be found in the stratum _____.
basale
Cells that surround melanocytes may contain more melanin than the melanocytes because of the process of _____.
cytocrine excretion
The _____ structures are associated with detecting deep pressure within the skin.
Pacinian corpuscles
The main tissue in the dermis is _____.
irregular dense connective tissue
The part of the hair from the surface into the dermis is the _____.
root
The darkness of hair is due mainly to _____.
melanin concentration
The following belong together except which one?
alopecia
Modified sweat glands, called __________________ glands, secrete wax in the ear canal.
ceruminous
Choose the response that the body employs to raise body temperature only when the others listed have failed.
-constricted skin blood vessels
-sweat glands inactivated
-slight skeletal muscle contraction
-full body shivering
-full body shivering
A(n) _________________ is the transplanting of one's own skin from an unburned region of the body to a burned area.
autograft
The strength of the dermis would mainly be due to _____.
presence of collagen fibers
Where is the greatest amount of keratin found?
stratum corneum
The stratum basale is also called the stratum _____.
germinativum
Calluses are thickened areas that are formed in response to a/an _____.
increase in friction or pressure
The pigment producing melanocytes are found in the _____ layer.
basale
What is the major factor that protects skin from the damaging effects of sunlight?
the presence of melanin
Most of the sensory fibers and structures are located in the _____ region.
dermis
Tactile corpuscles respond to a stimulus of _____.
light touch
The subcutaneous layer can also be referred to as the _____.
hypodermis
The presence of _____ is an indication of being in the hypodermis.
adipose tissue
What is the main factor in preserving body heat?
the presence of adipose
A group of cells that surrounds the developing hair is called the _____.
follicle
The color of red hair is due to _____.
trichosiderin
Goose bumps in the skin are caused by contraction of the _____ in response to cold or emotions.
arrector pili muscles
The following relate to sebaceous glands except which one?
use merocrine methods
Hair and fingernails are derived from the _____ cells.
epidermal
The most active growing region of the nails is the _____.
lunula
Sweat glands can also be called _____ glands.
sudoriferous
What actually controls and maintains body temperature?
the hypothalamus
The most easily regulated loss of heat through the skin is by _____.
evaporation
The greatest source of body heat is through _____.
contraction of the skeletal muscle
The pigment _____ found in vegetables can impart a yellow or orange color to the skin.
carotene
A _____ is a procedure that uses skin from a deceased person to treat a burned area.
homograft
The functions of the skin include all of these except __________________.
taking in nutrients
The protective dead layer of cells of the outer epidermis is called the _______________.
stratum corneum
Melanocytes lie within the _________________ of the skin.
stratum basale and upper dermis
Which of these phrases does not characterize the dermis?
thinner in areas receiving greater friction and use
Adipose tissue is most abundant in the ________________ layer under the skin.
subcutaneous
Hairs arise from which layer of the skin?
stratum basale of the epidermis
Within nails, the most rapidly dividing cells can be found in the __________________.
lunula
Heat loss occurs from the body by each of these methods except __________________.
cellular respiration
What is one important function for melanin?
absorb harmful radiation
The yellowish color of some person's skin is due to _____.
carotene
The epidermal ridges or fingerprints are probably caused by the _____.
dermal papillae
The part of the hair below the surface of the skin is called the _____.
root
Dark-skinned persons have a higher probability of developing melanomas because they have more melanocytes.
False
Persons who remain indoors frequently may have a higher risk of developing a malignant melanoma than those who are highly exposed to sunlight because of their work or other reasons.
True
Transdermal medications are delivered by inserting a hypodermic needle into the subcutaneous region.
False
The papillary layer of the dermis partially explains the presence of fingerprints in the epidermis.
True
Hair is actually a structure comprised mainly of keratin.
True
Excessive hair growth on regions of the body is alopecia.
False
Albinism is a condition resulting from the genetic inability to produce melanin throughout the body.
True
Sebaceous glands are always associated with each hair follicle.
false
The nail plate is the part of the fingernail which lies on top of the nail bed.
true
The eccrine sweat glands are located in the axillary areas and respond to emotional upsets.
true
As one ages, the ability to sweat increases as evidenced by increased moisture on the skin of the elderly.
false
The elimination of sweat can have an excretory as well as temperature regulating function.
true
The application of an ice pack is an example of temperature control by means of convection.
false
In order to conserve heat, blood vessels in the skin constrict.
true
Heat exhaustion occurs when the body undergoes excessive sweating on hot, humid days.
false
Regardless of race, all persons, except albinos, have the same relative numbers of melanocytes.
true
Antipyretic drugs are used to treat pyrexia, which is an abnormal drop in body temperature.
false
The white blood cells secrete interleukins, which are known to block the causes of fevers.
false
The skin is one of the more versatile organs of the body.
true
Epidermal cells usually grow and divide from the upper layers of the skin and migrate towards the dermis.
false
The epidermis contains a greater variety of cell types in comparison to the dermis.
false
The dermis has a rich blood supply while the epidermis is totally devoid of blood vessels.
true
There are usually no blood vessels in the epidermis.
true
The cells in the epidermis are only comprised of squamous epithelial cells.
false
The subcutaneous region has adipose cells that help insulate the body from heat as well as cold.
true