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Language of Medicine Chapters 8 & 9

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adnexa
Accessory parts of the uterus; the fallopian tubes and ovaries.
amnion
Innermost membrane around the developing embryo.
areola
Dark-pigmented area around the breast nipple.
Bartholin glands
Small exocrine glands at the vaginal orifice.
cervix
Lower, neck-like portion of the uterus.
chorion
Outermost layer of the two membranes surrounding the embryo; it is part of the placenta.
clitoris
Organ of sensitive erectile tissue anterior to the urinary meatus.
coitus
Sexual intercourse; copulation.
corpus luteum
Empty graafian follicle that secretes estrogen and progesterone after release of the egg cell; literally means yellow (luteum) body (corpus).
cul-de-sac
Region within the pelvis, midway between the rectum and the uterus.
embryo
Stage in development from fertilization of the ovum through the 2nd month of pregnancy.
endometrium
The inner mucous membrane lining the uterus.
estrogen
Hormone produced by the ovaries; responsible for female secondary sex characteristics and buildup of the uterine lining during the menstrual cycle.
fallopian tubes
Ducts through which the egg travels into the uterus.
fertilization
Union of the sperm and ovum (fusion of the two nuclei occurs).
fetus
The embryo from the 3rd month (after 8 weeks) to birth.
fimbriae (plural)
Finger-like ends of the fallopian tubes.
follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
Hormone produced by the pituitary gland; stimulates maturation of the ovum.
gamete
Sex cell; sperm or ovum.
genitalia
Reproductive organs; also called genitals.
gestation
Pregnancy.
gonads
Organs in the male and female that produce gametes;ovaries and testes.
graafian follicle
Developing sac enclosing each ovum within the ovary. Only about 400 of these sacs mature in a woman's lifetime.
human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)
Hormone produced by the placenta to sustain pregnancy by stimulating (-tropin) the mother's ovaries to produce estrogen and progesterone.
hymen
Mucous membrane partially or completely covering the vaginal orifice.
labia
Lips of the vagina; labia majora are the larger outermost lips, and the labia minora are the smaller, innermost lips.
lactiferous ducts
Tubes that carry milk within the breast.
luteinizing hormone (LH)
Hormone produced by the pituitary gland; promotes ovulation.
menarche
The beginning of the first menstrual period during puberty.
menopause
The gradual ending of menstrual function; climacteric.
menstruation
The monthly shedding of the uterine lining; menses means month.
myometrium
The muscle layer lining the uterus.
orifice
An opening.
ovaries
Organs in the female lower abdomen that produce ova and hormones; female gonads, the ovaries are almond-shaped and about the size of large walnuts.
ovulation
Release of the ovum from the ovary.
ovum (plural: ova)
Egg cell; female gamete.
papilla
A small nipple-shaped projection or elevation. The mammary papilla is the nipple of the breast.
parturition
Act of giving birth.
perineum
In females, the area between the anus and the vagina.
placenta
Vascular organ that develops during pregnancy in the uterine wall and serves as a communication between the maternal and the fetal blood-streams.
progesterone
Hormone produced by the corpus luteum in the ovary and the placenta of pregnant women. Progesterone meanse hormone (-one) for (pro-) pregnancy (gester).
puberty
Beginning of the fertile period when gametes are produced and secondary sex characteristics appear.
uterine serosa
Outermost layer surrounding the uterus.
uterus
Womb; muscular organ in which the embryo develops. The upper portion is the fundus; the middle portion is the corpus (body); and the lower, neck portion is the cervix.
vagina
A tube extending from the uterus to the exterior of the body.
vulva
External genitalia of the fmale; includes the labia, hymen, and clitoris.
carcinoma of the cervix
Malignant cells within the cervix (cervical cancer).
cervicitis
Inflammation of the cervix.
carcinoma of the endometrium (endometrial cancer)
Malignant tumor of the uterus (inner lining).
endometriosis
Endometrial tissue is found in abnormal locations, including the ovaries, fallopian tubes, supporting ligaments, or small intestine.
fibroids
Benign tumors in the uterus.
ovarian carcinoma
Malignant tumor of the ovary (adenocarcinoma).
ovarian cysts
Collections of fluid within a sac (cyst) in the ovary.
pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
Inflammation of the pelvic region; salpingitis.
carcinoma of the breast
Malignant tumor of the breast (arising from milk glands and ducts).
fibrocystic disease
Smll sacs of tissue and fluid in the breast.
abruptio placentae
Premature separation of the implanted placenta.
choriocarcinoma
Malignant tumor of the pregnant uterus.
ectopic pregnancy
Implantation of the fertilized egg in any site other than the normal uterine location.
placenta previa
Placental implantation over the cervical os (opening) or in the lower region of the uterine wall.
preeclampsia
A condition that occurs during pregnancy or shortly after and is marked by high blood pressure, proteinuria, and edema. If seizures occur, the condition is known as eclampsia or toxemia.
Down syndrome
Chromosomal abnormality (trisomy-21) results in mental retardation, retarded growth, a flat face with a short nose, low-set ears, and slanted eyes.
erythroblastosis fetalis
Hemolytic disease in the newborn caused by a blood group (Rh factor) incompatibility between the mother and the fetus.
hyaline membrane disease
Respiratory problem primarily in the premature neonate; lack of protein in the lining of the lung tissue causes collapse of the lungs. Also known as respiratory distress syndrome.
hydrocephalus
Accumulation of fluid in the spaces of the brain.
kernicterus
High levels of bilirubin in the bloodstream of a neonate; leads to brain damage and mental retardation.
pyloric stenosis
Narrowing of the opening of the stomach to the duodenum.
bulbourethral glands
Two exocrine glands near the male urethra.
Cowper glands
Bulbourethral glands.
ductus deferens
Vas deferens.
ejaculation
Ejection of sperm and fluid from the male urethra.
ejaculatory duct
Tube formed by the union of the vas deferens and the duct of the seminal vesicles, opening into the urethra at the prostate gland.
epididymis (plural: epididymides)
Tube located on top of each testis; it carries and stores the sperm cells before they enter the vas deferens. Didymos is a Greek work for testis.
flagellum
Hair-like projections on a sperm cell that makes it motile (able to move).
fraternal twins
Twins resulting from two separate, concurrent fertilizations.
glans penis
Sensitive tip of the penis.
identical twins
Twins resulting from the separation of one fertilized egg into two distinct embryos.
interstitial cells of the testis
Cells that lie between the seminiferous tubules and produce the hormone testosterone. A pituitary gland hormone (luteinizing hormone [LH]) stimulates the interstitial cells to produce testosterone.
parenchymal tissue (parenchyma)
Tissue composed of the essential cells of any organ. In the testes, parenchymal tissue includes seminiferous tubules that produce sperm.
perineum
Area between the anus and scrotum in the male.
prepuce (foreskin)
Skin covering the tip of the penis.
prostate gland
Gland at the base of the urinary bladder that secretes fluid into the urethra during ejaculation.
scrotum
External sac (double pouch) that contains the testes.
semen
Spermatazoa and fluid (prostatic and other glandular secretions).
seminal vesicles
Glands that secrete a fluid into the vas deferens.
seminiferous tubules
Narrow, coiled tubules in the testes that produce sperm.
spermatazoon (plural: spermatazoa)
Sperm cell.
sterilization
Any procedure rendering an individual incapable of reproduction; vasectomy and salpingectomy are examples.
stroma
Supportive, connective tissue of an organ.
testis (plural: testes)
Male gonad that produces spermatozoa and the hormone testosterone; testicle.
testosterone
Hormone secreted by the interstitical tissue of the testes; responsible for male sex characteristics.
vas deferens
Narrow tube (one on each side) that carries sperm from the epididymis into the body and toward the urethra.
carcinoma of the testes
Malignant tumor of the testicles.
cryptorchism; cryptorchidism
Undescended testicles.
hydrocele
Sac of clear fluid (-cele means swelling or protrusion) in the scrotum.
testicular torsion
Twisting of the spermatic cord.
varicocele
Enlarged, dilated veins near the testicle.
carcinoma of the prostate
Malignant tumor of the prostate gland.
prostatic hyperplasia
Benign growth of cells (glandular and stromal tissue) within the prostate gland; benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).
hypospadias; hypospadia
Congenitcal opening of the male urethra on the undersurface of the penis.
phimosis
Narrowing (stricture) of the opening of the prepuce over the glans penis; phim/o means to muzzle.
chlamydial infection
Bacteria (Chlamydia trachomatis) invade the urethra and reproductive tract of men and the vagina and cervix of women.
gonorrhea
Inflammation of the genital tract mucous membranes, caused by infection with gonococci (berry-shaped bacteria).
herpes genitalis
Infectino of the skin and mucosa of the genitals, caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV).
syphilis
Chronic STD infectious disease caused by a spriochete (spiral-shaped bacterium); it can affect any organ of the body.