Terms in this set (67)
Superior portion of the pharynx where air enters the pharynx
Connection between the nasopharynx and the laryngopharynx for air AND FOOD
Last part of the pharynx before the air and food enters the laynx
The slitlike passageway between the vocal folds
Protects the superior opening of the larynx.
When we swallow, the epiglottis tips and forms a lid over the larynx.
The voice box
Routes air and food into the proper channels and plays a role in speech
Vibrate with expelled air and the vibrations allows us to speak.
The compartment that houses the heart and lungs
Lines the thoracic cavity
Lines the surface of each lung
The pleural fluid lubricates and reduces friction between organs
A tube that serves as a passageway for air from the pharynx to enter the bronchial tubes
Warms air coming in
Uses mucus membrane to fight off bacteria coming in
The largest of the hyaline cartilages that line the larynx
hyaline cartilage that supports the larynx
Tube for food that goes from the mouth to the stomach.
Posterior to the trachea
The top of the lung
Right apical lobe
The superior lobe of the right lung
Right cardiac lobe
The middle lobe of the right lung
Right diaphragmatic lobe
The inferior lobe of right lung
Left apical lobe
The superior lobe of the left lung
Left diaphragmatic lobe
The inferior lobe of the left lung
A muscle that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity
Contracts and increases the size of the thoracic cavity
The diaphragm contracts inferiorly and flattens, providing more room for the lungs to take in more air
Division of the trachea that separate and subdivide further
The smallest of the conducting passageways
Site of gas exchange
Oxygen diffuses across the alveolar wall and enters the blood stream
Carbon dioxide leaves the blood and enters the alveoli
Maxillary, Sphenoid, Ethmoid, frontal
Lighten the skull
Produce mucus, which drains into the nasal cavities
Posterior Nasal Aperture
Portion that connects the pharynx with the nasal cavity.
Increase the surface area of the mucosa exposed to the air. Increase the air turbulence in the nasal cavity. Air goes through twists and turns and particles are deflected onto mucus-coated surfaces, where they are prevented from entering the lungs.
Clusters of lymphatic tissue
includes the respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs, and alveoli. Only site of gas exchange
Conducting zone structures
Trachea to the terminal bronchioles
Last line of defense for the respiratory system in the alveoli. Pick up bacteria, carbon particles, and other debris
A lipid molecule produced by cuboidal cells that coats the gas-exposed alveolar surfaces and is very important in lung function
Breathing. Air moves into and out of lungs
Gas excahnge between the pulmonary blood and alveoli
Respiratory gas transport
Oxygen and carbon dioxide must be trasnported to and from the lungs and tissue cells of the body via the bloodstream
At systemic capillaries, gas exchanges must be made between the blood and tissue cells.
Diaphragm and external intercostals
Inspiratory muscles contract, making more space in the thoracic cavity. The air particles spread out and create a vacuum and more air is sucked in until the intrapulmonary pressure is equal to atmospheric pressure
Inspiratory muscles relax. Intrapulmonary and thoracic pressure decrease. As intrapulmonary volumes decrease, the gases inside the lungs are forced more closely together, and the intrapulmonary pressure rises higher than atmospheric pressure. The gases flow out in order to equalize pressure in and out of the lungs.
How much air does normal quiet breathing move
500 ml (about a pint) with each breath in and out
Tidal volume (TV)
amount of air moved in and out breathing normally
Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV)
The amount of air that can be taken in forcibly over the tidal volume.
Between 2100 and 3200 ml
Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV)
The amount of air that can be forcibly exhaled after the tidal expiration
Air remaining in the lungs after most strenuous expiration. Important because it allows gas exchange to go on continuously even between breaths and helps to keep the alveoli inflated
Sum of TV, IRV, and ERV
Dead space volume
Air that enters the respiratory tract and remains in the conducting zone passageways and never reaches the alveoli.
Nonrespiratory Air Movements
Eupnea: Normal respiratory rate
Hypernea: Rapid breathing
Apnea: Stop breathing
Dyspnea: Shortness of breath, pain with breathing
Factors influencing respiratory rate and depth
- Attaches to hemoglobin and makes oxyhemoglobin
- Very few is carried dissolved in the plasma
Carbon dioxide Transportation
CO2 is transported in plasma as the bicarbonate ion, which plays a very important role in the blood buffer system. IN PLASMA NOT RBCs!!! Although some is carried inside the RBCs bound to hemoglobin (diff. site than oxygen)
Bicarbonate ions enter the red blood cells where they combine with hydrogen ions to form carbonic acid. Carbonic acid splits to form water and carbon dioxide, and CO2 then diffuses from the blood and enters the alveoli.
Pons and Medulla Oblongata
Control unconscious breathing
Controls conscious breathing
Controls rate and depth
Smoothes out respiratory rate
Enlarged alveoli= fibrosis of the lungs. Airways collapse, obstructing outflow of air.
Inflamed mucosa. Excessive mucus. Impairs ventilation and gas exchange.
1/3 of all cancer deaths in U.S. Smoking paralyzes cilia.
Genetic, builds up mucus in the lungs
Shortage of O2
Shortage of blood supply to organs
Congenital Heart Failure
Structural issues in the heart. The heart valves may be defective, either letting in too little to no blood at all or by letting blood flow backwards. Can lead to heart failure
Cause: Genetic and lifestyle of the mother such as drinking can increase the risk
Symptoms: Irregular heart beat at birth, shortness of breath, cyanosis, contraction of many infections
Detection: At birth, dr's listen to heartbeat and hear
that it's irregular. Perform echocardiogram and EKG, XRay, MRI
Treatment: No cure. Can take meds, have surgery or other procedures
Sudden Cardiac Arrest
Electrical disturbance disrupts the pumping action and prevents blood flow
Cause: Coronary artery disease can lead to it as can other diseases such as obesity. Risk factors such as drinking and smoking increase chance.
Symptoms: Chest pain, jaw discomfort, shortness of breath.
Detection: Blood tests for cholesterol, CT coronary angiogram
Treatment: Shock heart back into rhythm. Lifestyle changes. Take aspirin regimen.
What is the blood air barrier also called
What isn't part of the nose
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