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71 terms

Ears

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auditory
means pertaining to the sense of hearing
acoustic
means relating to sound or hearing
pinna
the external portion of the ear; "auricle"
external auditory canal
transmits sound waves from the pinna to the tympanic membrane of the middle of the ear
cerumen
secreted by ceruminous glands that line the auditory canal, "earwax"
middle ear
located between outer ear and inner ear, transmits sound across this space
tympanic membrane
located between the outer and middle ear, "eardrum"
mastoid bone cells
hallow air spaces located in the mastoid process of the temporal bone
auditory ossicles
three small bones found in the middle ear
malleus
known as the hammer
incus
known as the anvil
stapes
known as stirrup
eustachian tubes
narrow tubes that lead from the middle ear to the nasal cavity and the throat
inner ear
contains the sensory receptors for hearing and balance
oval window
located under the base of the stapes, the membrane that separates the middle ear from inner ear
cochlea
the snail-shaped, fluid filled structure that forms the inner ear
cochlear duct
a fluid filled cavity within the cochlea that vibrates when sound waves strike it
organ of Corti
receives vibrations from the cochlear duct and relays them to the auditory nerve fibers
semicircular canals
contains the liquid endolymph and sensitive hair-like cells
acoustic nerves
transmit this information to the brain, and the brain sends messages to muscles in all parts of the body to ensure that equilibrium is maintained
air conduction
the process by which sound waves enter the ear through the pinna
bone conduction
occurs as the eardrum vibrates and moves the auditory ossicles
sensorineural conduction
occurs when sound vibrations reach the inner ear
audiologist
specializes in the measurement of hearing function and in the rehabilitation of persons with hearing impairments
impacted cerumen
an accumulation of earwax that forms a solid mass by adhering to the walls of the external auditory canal
otalgia
pain in the ear; "earache"
ot
mean ear
otitis
any inflammation of the ear
otomycosis
a fungal infection of the external auditory canal; "swimmer's ear"
otopyorrhea
the flow of pus from the ear
otorrhagia
bleeding from the ear
barotrauma
pressure-related ear discomfort that can be caused by pressure changes when flying, driving in the mountains, scuba diving, or when the eustachian tube is blocked
eustachitis
inflammation of the eustachian tube
mastoiditis
an inflammation of any part of the mastoid bone cells
infectious myringitis
a contagious inflammation that causes painful blisters on the eardrum
otosclerosis
the ankylosis of the bones of the middle ear, resulting in a conductive hearing loss
myring
means eardrum
patulous eustachian tube
dissension of the eustachian tube
otitis media
an inflammation of the middle ear
acute otitis media
usually associated with an upper respiratory infection and is most commonly seen in young children
serous otitis media
a fluid buildup in the middle ear that can follow acute otitis media or can be caused by obstruction of the eustachian tube
acute purulent otitis media
a buildup of pus within the middle ear due to infection
labyrinthitis
an inflammation of the labyrinth that can result in vertigo and deafness
vertigo
a sense of whirling, dizziness, and the loss of balance, that is often combined with nausea and vomiting
meniere's syndrome
a rare chronic disease in which the amount of fluid in the inner ear increases intermittently, producing attacks of vertigo, a fluctuating hearing loss, and tinnitus
tinnitus
a ringing, buzzing, or roaring sound in one or both ears
deafness
the complete or partial loss of the ability to hear
presbycusis
a gradual loss of sensorineural hearing that occurs as the body ages
-cusis
means hearing
conductive hearing loss
occurs when the sound waves are prevented from passing from the air to the fluid filled inner ear
sensorineural hearing loss
develops when the auditory nerve or hair cells in the inner ear are damaged
noise-induced hearing loss
a type of nerve deafness caused by repeated exposure to extremely loud noises such as a gunshot, or to moderately loud noise that continues for long periods of time
audiological evaluation
the measurement of the ability to hear and understand speech sounds based on their pitch and loudness
audiometry
the use of an audiometer to measure hearing acuity
hertz
a measure of sound frequency that determines how high or low a pitch is
decibel
commonly used as the measurement of the loudness of sound
monaural testing
involves testing with one ear
binaural testing
involves testing with both ears
tympanometry
the use of air pressure in the ear canal to test for disorders of the middle ear
otoplasty
the surgical repair of the pinna of the ear
mastoidectomy
the surgical removal of mastoid cells
myringotomy
the surgical incision in the eardrum to create an opening for the placement of tympanostomy tubes
tympanostomy tubes
tiny ventilating tubes placed through the eardrum to provide ongoing drainage for fluids and to relieve pressure that can build up after childhood ear infections; "pediatric ear tubes"
tympanoplasty
the surgical correction of a damaged middle ear, either to cure chronic inflammation of to restore function
stapedectomy
the surgical removal of the top portion of the stapes bone and the insertion of a small prosthetic device known as a piston that conducts sound vibrations to the inner ear
fenestration
a surgical procedure in which a new opening is created in the labyrinth to restore hearing
fenestra
means window
hearing aid
an external electronic device that uses a microphone to detect sounds
labyrinthectomy
the surgical removal of all or a portion of the labyrinth
labyrinthotomy
a surgical incision between two of the fluid chambers of the labyrinth to allow the pressure to equalize
cochlear implant
an implanted electronic device that can give a deaf person a useful auditory understanding of the environment and/or hearing and help them to understand speech