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precise placement, sequencing, timing of articulators, management of breath stream, velopharyngeal management, phonatory control
articulation is a complex act requiring:
neurophysiologic problems, peripheral anatomic problems, hearing loss, intellectual disability, linguistic, cultural, and familial factors
the factors of speech disorders
dysarthria, MS, Parkinson's, ALS, Wilson's disease, stroke victims
examples of neurophysiologic problems
what percentage of children with an articulation disorder have a family member with the same disorder
cleft palate, short/ malformed velum, ankyloglossia, severe dental malocclusions, poor nasal patency
examples of peripheral anatomic problems
reduced speech rate, slow articulatory transitions, pauses, poor pitch control, problems with vocal quality (horse, deaf-sounding speech, hypo-hypernasality), problems with high frequency consonants /s/, distorted vowels, weak production of final consonants, and inappropriate stress patterns
problems individual with hearing loss have with speech production
functional articulation disorder
no specific peripheral, organic, neurophysiological pathology explains them- due to faulty learning
refers to dynamic location in the vocal tract where the sound is being produced
place of articulation
syllable structure processes, substitution processes, assimilation
what are the three types of phonological processes
affects syllable structure of the word (final consonant deletion, reduction, cluster reduction)
syllable structure processes
what percentage of kids have expressive/ receptive language disorders that coexist with phonological disorders?
what percentage of kids will have language comprehension problems (children tend to understand better than they are able to express)?
a congenital non-progressive neuromotor disorder resulting from brain damage acquired before, during, or shortly after birth
CP involving increased muscle tone, exaggerated stretch reflex- slow stretch that suddenly releases, and slow, effortful, jerky, voluntary movements. caused by lesions in pyramidal system
pyramidal system, 50%
where does injury of spastic CP individual happen and what percentage of CP individuals are spastic?
CP involving slow, writhing, involuntary movements when volitional actions are attempted, ATNR- atonic Neck reflex- hand raises and neck turns with it. caused by lesions in extrapyramidal system
CP involving disturbed equilibrium resulting in balance problems. Reflexes and muscle tone are normal. Caused by cerebellar lesion
CP involving simultaneous contraction of all muscle groups, producing constant muscle tone. Muscles all contract simultaneously, person curls up in ball. caused by damage to higher motor control centers of rain (basal ganglia)
CP involving a combination of more than one type. most common is spasticathenoid. cause by lesions in extrapyramidal and pyramidal systems
extrapyramidal and pyramidal systems, 30%
where does lesion of a mixed CP occur and what is its percentage?
consonants less precise, hypernasality, slurred speech, problems with tongue tip sounds, problems sustaining sounds
articulatory problems of CP
monotonous speech, flow is no smooth due to phonatory or resonatory problems
prosodic problems of CP
childhood apraxia of speech
articulatory motor programming disorder; no consistent of significant brain lesion involved; speech production skills lag behind language comprehension and cognition; highly inconsistent sound errors; difficulty with purposeful movements of the articulators
Templin Darley Test of Articulation
1969; has 57 cards for use with small children; each card has 2,3, or 4 pictures to elicit target words; lists of 141 words and sentences for older subjects; 4 page articulation test form; overlays for administering the identified separate units; a very comprehensive articulation test
tests vocalic /r/, tests clusters; can assess and view units easily; contains materials for use with adults; tests vowels; has screening test; inexpensive forms
strengths to the templin-darley test of articulation
takes more time to administer, test materials not as easy to use; outdated pictures; difficult to score
weaknesses to templin-darley test of articulation
Fisher-Logemann Test of Articulation Competence
1971; consists of 109 picture stimuli on 35 hand-board cards; bound folio to permit easy turning; 11 selected cards having marginal tabs for easy locations; the folio converts into a sturdy easel which will sit upright on a table; size of folio permits its storage in a file cabinet drawer; has double-sided record form (protocol)
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