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SPC Exam 2
Terms in this set (79)
Focuses on the balance between the info in our heads that come to form the attitudes towards certain things.
This is a feeling of imbalance, must eliminate dissonance.
What is dissonance?
Where you do or say things that don't fit.
Deals with how our minds process/categorize information.(stimuli)
Principles of Consistency theory
1. Mind operates between stimulus and response.
2. As you get new info it is processed, if it can't be categorized then it creates discomfort.
Heiders Balance Theory
Looks at attitudes between relationships and the attitudes that are attached to the relationships. Inconsistency
What are the three elements in cognitive dissonance?
P* - person perceiver
O* - another person
X* - an issue
(people prefer a balanced relationship than a negative one)
Who is the creator of Cognitive Dissonance?
Core principles of Dissonance
To eliminate dissonance. Can result in attitude change.
Three types of cognitive relationships
1. Consonant relationships - beliefs and behaviors coincide(you believe you're a good student and you are)
2. Dissonant relationships - beliefs don't fit behaviors (you believe you're a good student but you over sleep through your study group and review in bed instead)
3. Irrelevant relationships - beliefs and behaviors do not relate. (you believe you are a good student and you play Fifa)
What are the four assumptions of the cognitive dissonance theory?
1. Humans want consistency between thoughts and beliefs. (smoking in spite of it causing cancer)
2. Psychology inconsistency (beliefs don't fit thoughts) creates dissonance. `
3. Dissonance is cognitively uncomfortable
4. We are psychologically driven to eliminate dissonance.
What is the magnitude of dissonance?
How strong your feelings of dissonance are will influence what you do to reduce those sticky feelings. (your friend goes to UF and you hate UF)
What are the three factors that influence the magnitude of dissonance a person has?
1. The degree of importance
2. Dissonant cognitions compared to consonant cognitions.
3. The amount of rationale, if a person has a valid reason it will create less dissonance.
What are the four ways to reduce dissonance?
1. Selective exposure - people will avoid info that does not line up with their behavior/attitudes
2. Selective attention - looking at consistent info once it is already there.
3. Selective interpretation - interpreting ambiguous information so that it becomes consistent.
4. Selective retention - if you and a couple are fighting about what to do, you will remember what you wanted to do and forget her plans, vice versa.
The principal of minimal justification
Offering only the minimal incentive to get someone to behave. (the really boring task example with a dollar)
--Festinger and Carlsmith
Requires more change on the persons part to reduce it than would substantial.
The dissonance you feel after a large purchase and the way you justify it.
Expectancy violations theory
Developed by Judee Burgoon, examines the effect of nonverbal communication with messages.
People have certain expectations of other peoples behaviors.
What are the two competing needs of EVT?
Personal space (proxemics) and affiliation
What is affiliation?
The need to belong to a group
What is personal space or proxemics?
The invisible amount of space that a human prefers.
What are the four zones of personal space according to Edward Hall?
Intimate distance, personal distance, social distance, public distance.
The persons ownership or property of an area.
3 types - primary, secondary, or public.
The exclusive domain of a person, usually marked.
Not exclusive, but a personal connection with an area.
Areas open to all people, no affiliation
Territoriality is accompanied by what two behaviors?
Prevention - offensive behaviors to mark territory (graffiti for gangs)
Reaction - the resulting response to someone trying to access your area.
High reward behavior might be signaled as positive while the same behavior might be interpreted as negative (low reward)
EX: Jimmy and his friends behave one way(high reward), but when he does it in front of his GF she doesn't like it (low reward)
Can be cognitive or physical
The consequences with deviating from the expected behavior.
Can cause a person to focus more on the source of the behavior than the behavior itself.
The distance from someone you feel uncomfortable
cognitive or physical
EX: person you don't know very well stands too close to you when he talks.
The positive or negative evaluation of an expectancy violation.
Sometimes use the reward valance, you like the behavior that was towards you because it was from a certain person, but not if it was from someone you don't like.
What are the critiques of EVT?
Scope and boundaries - wide scope that is ambiguous
clarity - concepts are not always easy to grasp
has practical value in society.
Uncertainty reduction theory
Developed by Berger and Calabrese, to ultimately reduce uncertainty and make us feel more comfortable. Both verbal and nonverbal.
Says why you do what you do when you meet someone
Axioms and interaction
Has a great heuristic value, and is parsimonious.
Why is there the uncertainty reduction theory?
So that we can anticipate what others do or say in order to understand our interactions.
When does uncertainty occur?
When the number of potential different behaviors are high and not enough information to determine how people will react/act.
What are the types of uncertainty?
Cognitive - uncertainty associated with beliefs and behaviors. How you think
Behavioral - How well we predict potential behaviors. (thinking of what you will say or how you will act before a confrontation)
What are the processes associated with uncertainty reduction theory?
Proactive process - things we do before we engage (ask someone how their day is)
Retroactive process - after you have an interaction, you go over what happened in your head.
What are the seven concepts relating to uncertainty?
Verbal (What is said)
Nonverbal warmth (how we respond physically to a person)
Information seeking (how we collect info)
Self disclosure (how much personal info we reveal)
Reciprocity of disclosure (how much info we reveal in response to their self-disclosure)
Similarity (how alike we perceive ourselves to be to someone)
Liking someone (affinity towards the other person)
What do Axioms do?
Covering laws that are generalizable, help us predict what will happen during the uncertainty reduction process.
What happens if verbal communication goes up?
Uncertainty will go down.
What happens as nonverbal warmth increases?
Uncertainty will go down.
What do high levels of uncertainty do?
They decrease the level of intimacy in a relationship and vice versa.
In long term relationships do you technically want to rid of all uncertainty?
No, this will bore the other person.
Do high levels of uncertainty create high levels of Reciprocity?
What do similarities between people do?
They decrease the uncertainty and vice versa.
Does uncertainty affect how much you like someone?
What is one of the things URT helps to show?
It helps to show the relationships between different Axioms.
How many Axioms are there?
What happens to uncertainty as you interact with social networks?
Uncertainty will go down.
- Axiom 8
If you have the potential to reward someone, motivation to reduce uncertainty will increase.
Deviation from Expectations
Unexpected behavior increases the desire to reduce uncertainty, and expected behavior reduces the desire.
Anticipation for Future Interactions
Greater likelihood of future interaction increase the desire to reduce uncertainty in the initial interaction.
What are the strategies for reducing uncertainty?
Passive strategies - observations of others (reactivity), or when inhibitions are lowered (disinhibition).
Active strategies - making an effort to reduce uncertainty without interacting directly.
Interactive strategies - face-to-face interaction
What is Social exchange theory?
It looks at the way people evaluate the costs and rewards of their current relationship.
What are the costs and rewards that deal with the social exchange theory?
Costs - negative aspects of the relationship such as time wasted.
Rewards - positive aspects, fun, enjoyment.
- Subject to change over time.
What is the formula for the social exchange theory?
Worth = Reward - Cost
T or F
Can social exchange theory be looked at economically (goods and services) as well as the intangible benefits (connections and trust)?
The theory of Interdependence (thibault and kelley)
Refers to how humans only stay in a relationship if the rewards outweigh the costs.
Why do we sometimes use rationalization?
To justify a less-than-rationale decision to help us feel better about it.
Relationships are interdependent and the outcome is based off of both peoples actions.
T or F
Relationship evaluations two categories
Comparison level (CL) - a SUBJECTIVE standard that depicts what a person expects out of a relationship.
Comparison level for alternatives (CLALT) - a SUBJECTIVE standard that depicts the minimal level of rewards that it takes for a person to stay in a relationship. - used as a stability measure.
These relationships are?
1.- Outcome > CL > CLalt
2.- Outcome > CLalt > CL
Satisfying and Stable
- CLalt > Outcome > CL
Satisfying and Unstable
- CL > Outcome > CLalt
Unsatisfying and Stable
- CLalt > CL > Outcome
- CL > CLalt > Outcome
Unsatisfying and Unstable
What are exchange patterns?
They explain how people change their behavior in relationships in order to achieve interactional goals.
What are the 4 exchange patterns?
Behavioral sequences - series of actions towards goals
Behavioral control - ability to change someones behavior by changing your own.
Fate control - affecting the outcome of another person.
Power - degree of dependence someone has on another for outcomes.
What are the three exchange pattern matrices?
Given matrix - behavioral choices and outcomes are determined by internal/external situations.
Effective matrix - variety of alternative/behaviors that influence a persons actions in a social exchange.
Dispositional matrix - The personal beliefs of two people in a rewards system, how they think it should happen.
What forms do exchange structures take?
Direct exchange - cost and rewards are reciprocated
Generalized exchange - reciprocation of costs/rewards extend out to social world and may not even benefit whoever initiates the exchange.
Productive exchanges - costs and rewards are simultaneous for both parties.
Social penetration or the onion theory
Relationship bonding where individuals move to more intimate communication, beyond physical intimacy.
What are the three Social Penetration levels of intimacy?
What did Altman and Taylor propose about relationships?
They say that they follow a specific "trajectory" that depend on degrees of social penetration.
T or F
Relationships progress for non intimate to intimate?
When a relationship falls apart
When a relationship ceases to exist.
Variety of subjects discussed
Degree of intimacy and detail.
Developed through self-disclosure
Too much too soon
Too much information too fast can cause uncomfortableness.
It is possible to build up a "reservoir" of positive reward/cost experiences that can help a relationship out in later stages
What are the four stages of SPT?
Orientation - public level, social norms
Exploratory Affective Stage - personality char. surface.
Affective Exchange - interactions are relaxed
Stable Exchange - open expression or thoughts.
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