Chapter 13 Albert Bandura: Modeling Theory
Terms in this set (42)
The weakening of inhibitions or constraints by observing the behavior of a model
A behavior-modifi cation technique that involves observing the behavior of others (the models) and participating with them in performing the desired behavior.
Learning new responses by observing the behavior of other people
Our feeling of adequacy, effi ciency, and competence in coping with life.
Administering rewards or punishments to oneself for meeting, exceeding, or falling short of one's own expectations or standards.
The idea that behavior is controlled or determined by the individual, through cognitive processes, and by the environment, through external social stimulus events
The idea that behavior is determined through the interaction of behavioral, cognitive, and environmental or situational variables.
Learning or strengthening a behavior by observing the behavior of others, and the consequences of that behavior, rather than experiencing the reinforcement or consequences directly
Behavior can be learned through vicarious reinforcement by:
observing the behavior of others and anticipating the rewards for behaving in the same way.
are the mediating mechanisms between stimulus and response
_________________ bring about control of behavior through self-regulation and self-reinforcement
In the classic Bobo doll study:
children patterned their behavior on the model's aggressive behavior whether the model was observed live, on television, or in a cartoon.
weakening an inhibition through exposure to a model
Three factors that inﬂuence modeling are:
the model's characteristics, the observer's characteristics, and the behavior's reward consequences
Observational learning is governed by:
attentional, retention, production, and incentive and motivational processes.
is a set of cognitive processes concerned with thought and perception.
internal performance standards against which to evaluate behavior
Self-efﬁcacy refers to:
the ability to control life events
People low in self-efﬁcacy:
feel helpless and give up quickly when faced with obstacles
people who score high in self-efficancy:
persevere at tasks and perform at a high level
Judgments of self-efﬁcacy are based on:
performance attainment, vicarious experiences, verbal persuasion, and physiological arousal.
performance attainment, vicarious experiences, verbal persuasion, and physiological arousal make it possible to:
Infants and children are reinforced:
primarily by physical stimuli
older children are reinforced:
more by others' approval or disapproval
approval or dissaproval from others:
is internalized so that reinforcement becomes self-administered
In behavioral therapy, models are used to:
demonstrate ways of coping with threatening situations
Behavior can be modiﬁed through:
observation and guided participation
In covert modeling:
subjects imagine how a model copes with a feared situation.
Bandura's approach to behavior modiﬁcation deals with:
overt behavior and cognitive variables, particularly self-efﬁcacy.
As self-efﬁcacy improves during treatment:
the client is increasingly able to deal with threatening situations
Behavior modiﬁcation has been criticized for:
manipulating people against their will, but Bandura argues that with self-awareness and self-regulation, people undergoing behavior modiﬁcation understand what is being reinforced.
Behavior is controlled by:
by internal cognitive processes and external stimuli; a position Bandura calls reciprocal determinism
Triadic reciprocality refers to interaction among:
behavior, cognitive, and environmental variables.
Bandura believes that most behavior is _________; __________ factors play a minor role.
Learning in ____________ may be more inﬂuential than learning in __________ but adults are not victims of childhood experiences
According to Bandura, our ultimate goal is:
to set realistic performance standards to maintain an optimal level of self-efﬁcacy.
Self-efficancy varies with:
age and gender
Self-efficancy can influence:
career choice, school performance, job performance, physical and mental health, and the ability to cope with stress
groups have been shown to develop:
Bandura assesses behavior and cognitive variables through:
direct observation, self-report inventories, and physiological measures
What type of assessment does Bandura favor?
controlled laboratory investigations using large groups of subjects and statistical analysis of data.
Criticisms of Bandura's theory relate to:
his focus on overt behavior to the exclusion of emotions and conﬂicts, his treatment of symptoms rather than possible internal causes, and his failure to state precisely how cognitive variables affect behavior.