Chapter 12 B.F. Skinner: Reinforcement theory
Terms in this set (48)
Skinner denied the existence of an entity called personality and did not seek:
causes of behavior within the organism.
Mental and physiological processes are not overtly observable, so:
they have no relevance for science.
The causes of behavior are:
external to the organism.
Behavior can be controlled by:
its consequences, by the reinforcer that follows the behavior.
Respondent behavior involves:
a response elicited by speciﬁc environmental stimuli.
Conditioning (respondent behavior that is learned) involves:
substituting one stimulus for another.
demonstrated the importance of reinforcement.
Conditioning will not occur:
Operant behavior is emitted and is determined and modiﬁed by:
the reinforcer that follows it.
Operant behavior cannot be traced to:
a speciﬁc stimulus; it operates on the environment and changes it.
Personality is simply:
a pattern of operant behaviors.
Reinforcement schedules include:
ﬁxed interval, ﬁxed ratio, variable interval, and variable ratio.
Shaping (successive approximation) involves:
reinforcing the organism only as its behavior comes to approximate the behavior desired.
Superstitious behavior results when:
reinforcement is presented on a ﬁxed- or variable-interval schedule.
Whatever behavior is occurring at the moment of reinforcement:
will come to be displayed more frequently.
Self-control of behavior refers to:
altering or avoiding certain external stimuli and reinforcers.
Other self-control techniques are:
satiation, aversive stimulation, and self-reinforcement for displaying desirable behaviors.
Behavior modiﬁcation applies:
operant-conditioning techniques to real-world problems.
_____________ are positively reinforced; ______________ are ignored.
Desirable behaviors; undesirable behaviors
The token-economy approach:
rewards desirable behaviors with tokens that can be used to acquire objects of value.
Behavior modiﬁcation deals only with:
overt behavior and uses positive reinforcement, NOT punishment.
Negative reinforcement involves:
removing an aversive or noxious stimulus.
Negative reinforcement is:
less effective than positive reinforcement.
Skinner's image of human nature emphasizes:
determinism, uniqueness, the importance of the environment, and the design of a society that maximizes the opportunity for survival.
Although people are controlled by their environment:
they can exert control by designing that environment properly.
Skinner assessed behavior (not personality) using functional analyses to determine:
the frequency of the behavior, the situation in which the behavior occurred, and the reinforcers associated with the behavior.
Three ways to assess behavior are:
direct observation, self-report, and physiological measures.
Skinner's research was:
idiographic, focusing on the intensive study of a single subject.
Skinner's reversal experimental design consists of:
baseline, conditioning, reversal, and reconditioning stages.
Skinner's system has considerable empirical support but has been criticized for:
its deterministic view, the simplicity of the experimental situations, the lack of interest in behavior other than response rate, and the failure to consider human qualities that set us apart from rats and pigeons.
Skinner's techniques for the modiﬁcation of behavior using operant conditioning remain popular, but his behavioristic position has been:
overtaken by the cognitive movement within psychology.
A form of therapy that applies the principles of reinforcement to bring about desired behavioral changes.
The process of eliminating a behavior by withholding reinforcement
An approach to the study of behavior that involves assessing the frequency of a behavior, the situation in which it occurs, and the reinforcers associated with it.
The substitution of instinctive behaviors for behaviors that had been reinforced
The strengthening of a response by the removal of an aversive stimulus
Behavior emitted spontaneously or voluntarily that operates on the environment to change it.
The procedure by which a change in the consequences of a response will affect the rate at which the response occurs
The application of an aversive stimulus following a response in an effort to decrease the likelihood that the response will recur
The act of strengthening a response by adding a reward, thus increasing the likelihood that the response will be repeated.
Patterns or rates of providing or withholding reinforcers
Responses made to or elicited by specific environmental stimuli
reversal experimental design
A research technique that involves establishing a baseline, applying an experimental treatment, and withdrawing the experimental treatment to determine whether the behavior returns to its baseline value or whether some other factor is responsible for the observed behavior change
The ability to exert control over the variables that determine our behavior.
In the sign approach to assessing personality, character types, traits, or unconscious confl icts are inferred from questionnaires and other self-report inventories. In the sample approach to assessing behavior, test responses are interpreted as directly indicative of present behavior, not of traits, motives, or childhood experiences.
An explanation for the acquisition of complex behavior. Behavior such as learning to speak will be reinforced only as it comes to approximate or approach the final desired behavior
Persistent behavior that has a coincidental and not a functional relationship to the reinforcement received
A behavior-modifi cation technique in which tokens, which can be exchanged for valued objects or privileges, are awarded for desirable behaviors