Bicarbonate and carbonic acid

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Bicarbonate Ion: Carbonic acid ratio
20:1 = pH 7.4
21:1 = pH more than 7.4
19:1 = ph less than 7.4
Acidosis
-ph below 7.35
-low nervous system function
-coma
-acidotic shock
Alkalosis
-ph above 7.45
-high nervous system function
-convulsion
-alkalotic shock
Respiratory Acidosis
-decrease in resp rate(hypoventilation)
-high CO2 in blood
-high CO2 level = low pH
Respiratory Alkalosis
-increase in resp rate(hyperventilation)
-low CO2 in blood
-low CO2 level ----> high pH
metabolic acidosis
-NOT caused by breathing or CO2 imbalance
-high acid(high H+) in blood: Renal disease(unable to secrete H+), Diabetes mellitus, high fat diet, starvation, high ketones(ketosis----> ketoacidosis)
-low Bicarbonate in blood
-high H+ in blood
-high acids in food
-diarrhea
metabolic alkalosis
-NOT caused by breathing or CO2 imbalance
-low acid(low H+) in blood: vomitting, diuretics
-high bicarb in blood
-high Na bicarb ingestion
-high bases
-low acids in food
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