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Human Geo Chapter 12/13 Test
Terms in this set (47)
Three types of services in the econmy
Consumer Services, Business Services, and Public Services
These are 1/2 of jobs in the United States.
Retail and Wholesale Services
-Dept stores, grocers, motor vehicles
-Schooling (not public), tutoring
Health and Social Services
-Doctors office, nursing homes
Leisure and Hospitality
-Restaurants, bars and lodging
Main purpose is to facilitate the activities of other businesses. 1/4th of all jobs in the US.
Law, management, accounting...
FIRE - finance, insurance, and real estate..
Constitutes about 5% (says 10% in textbook) of all jobs in the U.S.
Workers divided among various levels of government.
Federal Government: 1/6 of public sector employees
State Government: ¼ of public sector employees
Local Government: 3/5 of public sector employees
Rising and Falling Service Employment
Most impacted by the recession, but also the biggest source of job growth worldwide recently.
KEY two fastest growing:
-Within business services, jobs expanded most rapidly in professional services e.g. engineering, management, and law
-Within consumer services, fastest increase has been in provision of health care
Central Place Theory
Helps to explain how the most profitable location can be identified. CONSUMER SERVICES LOCATED DUE TO THIS.
-First proposed in the 1930s by German geographer Walter Christaller. In his book: The Central Places in Southern Germany (1933)
Determines where places in the urban hierarchy (hamlets, villages, towns & cities) are located spatially and functionally
-Establishes a central place surrounded by the market area
a Central Place is a market center for the exchange of goods and services by people attracted from the surrounding area. Maximizes accessibility.
The area surrounding the central place is the Market Area (or hinterland). A market area is a good example of a nodal region.
Consumers near the center of the circle obtain services from local establishments. The farther away from the circle, the more likely they are to use a different node to obtain a service.
Range of a Market Area
Maximum distance people are willing to travel to use a service. People tend to go to the nearest available service.
People travel short distances for everyday services. e.g. groceries and movie rentals. People travel greater distances for services offered exclusively in specific places. This is usually determined by time away rather than distance.
Threshold of a Market Area
Minimum number of people needed to support a service. Every enterprise needs a certain amount of income.
Service providers determine the suitability of a service center by overlaying the range of potential customers to its threshold. (i.e. thrift shops main market is to poorer people and they sell cheaper stuff, resulting a different count of expected consumers in a given range, and they need a higher threshold to stay in business)
Hexagons Central Place
Used to delineate Market Areas because it's a compromise between squares and circles.
Circles: gaps & overlap
Squares: Distance varies from center
By the way, it goes:
CITY - TOWN - VILLAGE - HAMLET
CITY - TOWN - MARKET TOWN - VILLAGE
Hierarchy of Consumer Services
-consumer services that have small thresholds, short ranges, and small market areas are found in small settlements
-Larger settlements provide consumer services that have larger thresholds, ranges, and market areas.
Small settlements are limited to consumer services that have small thresholds, short ranges and small market areas. A business cannot manage in a place where it cannot be supported.
Which type of country has more small threshold/short range/small market area services?
-A more developed country
Nesting of Services and Settlements
According to central place theory market areas across a developed country would be a series of hexagons of various sizes
By the way, it goes:
CITY - TOWN - VILLAGE - HAMLET
CITY - TOWN - MARKET TOWN - VILLAGE
Rank-Size Distribution of Settlements
Ranking settlements from largest to smallest in many developed countries produces a regular pattern (especially in developed) or hierarchy
Rank-size rule states that the country's nth-largest settlement is 1/n the population of the largest settlement
- Ex: Los Angeles = 2nd largest, ½ population of NY
-Plotting populations on logarithmic paper produces a straight line.
Exceptions (when it isn't a straight line on a graph) include the presence of a Primate City: settlement that has more than twice as many people as the second-ranking settlement.
Market Area Analysis
Service providers believe that the location of a business is the most important factor to its profitability.
Steps to Determine Profitability of a Location
1. Compute the Range
2. Compute the Threshold
3. Draw the Market Area
CONSUMER SERVICES LOCATED DUE TO THIS.
The gravity model says that the best location will be the one that minimizes travel for all potential customers. The optimal location of a services is directly related to the number of people in the area and inversely related to the distance people must travel to access it.
Consumer behavior reflects two patterns:
1. The greater the number of people in an area, the greater number of potential customers.
2. Farther people are from a service, less likely they are to use it.
Center of the flow of information and capital in the global economy. BUSINESS SERVICES LOCATED DUE TO THIS.
-Location of countless large corporations' headquarters. Professionals (i.e. Lawyers) cluster in global cities as well. Banks, and financial stuff are here too.
Urban settlements tend to specialize in one or a few specific business services
-Global cities area divided into three levels: alpha, beta, and gamma, which, in turn, are further subdivided based on economic, political, cultural, and infrastructure factors.
-Examples: alpha++ (New York) and alpha+ (Chicago)
determined by Economic factors, Political factors, Cultural factors, and Infrastructural factors.
Business Services in Developing Countries
Primarily there are two main types of business services offered in developing countries.
1. Offshore Financial Services
Tax breaks include little to no taxes on income, profits, and capital gains
Bank secrecy laws can help individuals and businesses evade disclosure in their home countries
2. Business-Processing Outsourcing
-Developing countries with a large labor force fluent in English are relatively more attractive to firms seeking a place to outsource some of their routine work.
E.g. India, Philippines
-Low wages too.
Collection of individual vendors who come together to offer goods and services in a location on specified days. Usually to developing countries.
(i.e. Muslim countries)
Economic Base of Settlements
-A settlement's distinctive economic structure derives from its basic industries, which export primarily to consumers outside the settlement.
-Nonbasic industries are enterprises whose customers live in the same community-essentially, consumer services.
KEY: Basic creates non-basic industries (with new workers, and therefore demand for non-basic), but non-basic DOES NOT create basic industries
A community's unique collection of basic industries defines its economic base.
Ex. Computing and data processing services: Boston | or LA and NY as a general all around thing | or San Francisco as tech |
Economic base of a postindustrial society, such as the U.S., are in business, consumer, or public services
Distribution of Talent
Some cities have a higher percentage of talented individuals than others, as they tend to gravitate towards cities with more cultural diversity.
Services in Rural Settlements
Rural settlements tend to take one of two forms.
1. Clustered rural settlement is an agricultural based community. Typically include homes, barns, tool sheds, and consumer services, such as religious structures, schools, and shops. Live in close proximity to one another with their farms around them.
-arranged either circularly or linearly
2. Dispersed rural settlement. Characterized by farmers living on individual farms isolated from neighbors rather than alongside other farmers in settlements.
Services in Early Settlements
Nomads that had settled just needed a couple services
1. Places to bury the dead (Early Consumer Services)
-Religious leaders stationed at burial sites to perform service of saying prayers for the deceased
-Likely encouraged the building of more permanent structures for ceremonies and dwellings
2. Protection (Early Public Services)
Walls built around settlements + defenders (soldiers)
3. Food (early business services)
-warehousing centers for extra food, and to trade
-Among the oldest is Ur in Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq)
Medieval Urban Settlements
-Small towns -> serve various lords
Largest medieval European settlements served as power centers for the lords, church leaders, and as major market centers.
What was the tallest/most elaborate structure in these settlements? CHURCHES!
-Usually surrounded by walls.
Rapid Growth of Urban Settlements
-The process by which the population of urban settlements grows, known as urbanization, has two dimensions.
-An increase in the number of people living in urban settlements.
-Developing countries have 8 of the 10 most populous cities.
-An increase in the percentage of people living in urban settlements.
Percentage of people living in the urban settlements has increased from 3% in 1800 to 47% in 2000.
Developed Countries: ¾ of population
Developing Countries: 2/5 of population
Central Business District.
Services offered in the CBD can be divided into three types:
1. Public Services
(city hall, courts, county and st. agencies, and libraries)
-Centrally located for ease of accessibility to all residents
-Sports centers and conventions centers are often downtown to stimulate commerce in the CBD
(Ex. Staples Center/LA Convention Center)
2. Business Services
(advertising agencies, banks, financial institutions, and law firms)
-Proximity to other service providers for businesses promotes collaboration and face-to-face meetings
3. Consumer Services
-Historically there have been three types of retail located in CBDs:
1. Retailers with a high threshold (department stores, coffee shops)
2. Retailers with a high range (i.e. Jewelry or clothing store)
3. Retailers serving downtown CBD workers
-However changing shopping habits and a shift of the more affluent to the suburbs have reduced the importance of retail services in the CBD
-there isn't any manufacturing or many residents in CBDs
Competition for Land in the CBD
High demand for the limited space in the CBD has encouraged vertical development
-Inadequate space exists above ground for the needed dense network of telephone, electric, and broadband cables, thus they are placed underground and out of sight.
-Underground passages can segregate pedestrians from motor vehicles and shield them from harsh winter weather.
-Demand for space in CBDs has made high-rise structures economically feasible
Concentric Zone Model
Created by sociologist E.W. Burgess
-First model to explain the distribution of different social groups within urban areas
-How does the city grow (according to the model)?
1. CBD: innermost ring where nonresidential activities occur
2. A Zone in Transition: area eventually consumed by CBD
3. Zone of Working-Class Homes: modest, older houses
4. Zone of Better Residence: newer, larger houses for middle-class families
5. Commuter Zone: beyond the continuous built-up
Created by land economist Homer Hoyt
-City develops in a series of sectors (not rings). As a city grows activities expand outward in a wedge, or sector, from the center.
Multiple Nuclei Model
Created by geographers C. D. Harris and E. L. Ullman
-city consists of a collection of individual nodes, or centers, around which different people and activities cluster.
(University node would attract bookstores, pizza, etc)
Geographic Applications of the Models
Combining the models help geographers explain where different types of people live in a city:
-They suggest that most people prefer to live near others who have similar characteristics
1. Concentric Zone Model
Families in newer houses tend to live in an outer ring
Families in older houses tend to live in an inner ring
2. Sector Model
Given two families who own their homes, the family with the higher income will not live in the same sector as the family with a lower income
3. Nuclei Model
People with same ethnic background are likely to live near each other (a ethnic nodal point?)
Stages of Cities in Developing Countries
1. Precolonial Cities
Before the Europeans established colonies, most people lived in rural settlements
There were but a few principal cities in Latin America, Africa, and Asia
(In present-day Mexico, the Aztecs built the city Tenochtitlan, where present-day Mexico City is located)
2. Colonial Cities
When European colonization gained control of Latin America, Asia, and Africa, they expanded the existing cities to provide colonial services
(for Administration, Military Command ,International Trade, Housing for European Settlers)
Following independence, cities have become the focal points of change
-Millions of migrants have arrived to them in search of work.
-In some cities, such as Mexico City, previous social patterns from the previous century were reinforced
Several definitions have been created to characterize cities and their suburbs.
1. City defines an urban settlement that has been legally incorporated into an independent, self-governing unit. (Los Angeles, Chicago)
-In the U.S., these urban settlements are sometimes known as a central city.
2. An urban area consists of a dense core of census tracts, densely settled suburbs, and low-density land that links the dense suburbs with the core. The census recognizes two types of urban areas:
-An urbanized area is an urban area with at least 50,000 inhabitants.
-An urban cluster is an urban area with between 2,500 and 50,000 inhabitants.
3. The U.S. Bureau of the Census has created a method of measuring the functional area of a city, known as the metropolitan statistical area (MSA). It includes:
-An urbanized area with a population of at least 50,000
-The county within which the city is located
-Adjacent counties with a high population density and a large percentage of residents working in the central city's county.
Overlapping Metropolitan Areas
Some adjacent MSAs overlap so that they now form one continuous urban complex
(Extending north of Boston to South of Washington D.C. this region is called Megalopolis)
Most U.S. metropolitan areas have a council of government, which is a cooperative agency consisting of various local government representatives.
-Purpose may be to do some overall planning for the area that cannot be performed by a single local government
The process of legally adding land area to a city is annexation
-Many U.S. cities grew rapidly in the 19th century, because they offered better services than available in the rural countryside (e.g. water supply, sewage disposal, etc.) through annexation
-LAX was annexed for the city
U.S. tend to become less and less dense as one ventures farther from the city's center; this phenomenon is known as the density gradient
The Cost of Suburban Sprawl
A flattening of the density gradient for a metropolitan area means that its people and services are spread out over a larger area
-U.S. suburbs are characterized by sprawl, the progressive spread of development over the landscape
The modern residential suburb is segregated in two ways:
1. Social Class
Similarly priced houses are typically built in close proximity to one another, thus attracting a specific range of income earners.
2. Land Uses
-Residents are separated from commercial and manufacturing activities that are confined to compact, distinct areas
-Zoning ordinances enacted in the early 20th century have contributed most notably to the segregation of land uses associated with suburban areas
Cars and trucks permitted large-scale development of suburbs at greater distances from the city center.
Motor vehicles use a considerable amount of space in U.S. cities:
-average city -> ¼ of its land to roads and parking lots
-land in the central city for parking cars and trucks
Automakers are scrambling to bring alternative-fuel vehicles to the market due to pollution:
Diesel engines burn fuel more efficiently
Energy that would be otherwise wasted when coasting and braking is reduced, electric engine turns on
Fuel made by distilling crops but Critics question whether the amount of energy put into growing them
4. Plug-In Hybrid
Electric motor supplies the power at all speeds
Gas engine can recharge the battery, as well as plugging the car into an electrical outlet
5. Hydrogen Fuel Cell
Hydrogen forced through a PEM (polymer electrolyte membrane or proton exchange membrane) combines with oxygen from the air, producing an electric charge
-In larger cities, public transit is better suited than motor vehicles to move large numbers of people, because each transit traveler takes up less space
-More cost effective than privately operated vehicles
-Emits relatively less pollutants than privately operated vehicles
-More energy efficient than privately operated vehicles
-Most people in the U.S. overlook the benefits of public transit, because they place higher value on the privacy and flexibility of schedule offered by a car
-Not offered in most U.S. cities
-Large houses in older neighborhoods are subdivided into smaller dwellings for low-income families, through a process known as filtering
-Over time, landlords cease maintaining the properties when they are no longer economically feasible. Basically abandonment.
-Some banks engage in redlining: drawing lines on a map to identify areas in which they will refuse to loan money to purchase or to fix up a house. (generally in poorer areas)
-Redlining is illegal but difficult to enforce
-During the mid-twentieth century, many substandard inner-city houses were demolished and replaced with public housing- housing reserved for low-income households, who must pay 30 percent of their income for rent.
-A housing authority, established by the local government, manages the buildings, and the federal government pays for all expenses not covered by rent
-Most of the high-rise public housing projects built in the U.S. and Europe at this time are now considered unsatisfactory for families with children. Fell into corruption.
Gentrification is the process by which middle-class people move into deteriorated inner-city neighborhoods and renovate the housing.
Most U.S. cities have at least one substantially renovated inner-city neighborhood where middle-class people live. As they are attracted by some of the following:
-Houses may have more architectural character than those in the suburbs.
-Proximity to cultural and recreational activities
-Commuting time reduced to CBD
-Inner-city residents are frequently referred to as permanent underclass, because they are trapped in an unending cycle of economic and social problems.
Suffers from relatively higher rates of unemployment, alcoholism, drug addiction, illiteracy, juvenile delinquency, and crime.
-Children often attend deteriorated schools
Affordable housing is difficult to secure
-Tend to ignore good learning habits, regular school attendance, and completion of homework; the tendencies needed to elevate one's self out of the underclass
Culture of Poverty
Inner-city residents are trapped as a permanent underclass, because they live in a culture of poverty.
-Unwed mothers giving birth to ¾ of the babies in the U.S. inner-city neighborhoods
-¾ of children in the inner city live with only one parent
-Relatively higher usage of drugs
The Eroding Tax Base
Low-income inner-city residents require public services, but they pay little of the taxes needed to fund the public services.
-Cities have two choices to close the gap between the cost of operating public services and the funding made available by taxing.
1. Reduce Services
2. Raise Tax Revenues
The Impact of the Recession
Housing market collapse in 2008 was one of principal causes of the severe recession.
Lower assessed values of houses led to lower tax revenues acquired from property taxes.
When borrowers cease paying their mortgages, lenders can take over the property in what is called a foreclosure.
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