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RADT 221- Ch. 31
Terms in this set (57)
Consists of activities that provide adequate confidence that radiology will provide consistently high quality images?
What is the aspect of QA that monitors technical equipment to
quality standards by stabilizing the equipment?
Regulation and Accreditation Acts
1968-Radiation Control Health and Safety Act,
1981-Consumer-Patient Radiation Health and Safety Act
1990-Safe Medical Devices Act (SMDA)
1992-Mammography Quality Standards Act (MQSA)
1996-Health Insurance Portability & Accountability Act (HIPAA)
Acts & other relating to radiologic & imaging sciences are developed and enforced by ____?
CDRH-Center for Devices and Radiological Health
FDA-Food & DRug Administration
HHS Heallth & Human Services
TJC-The Joint Commission
JCAHO-Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations
JRCERT-The Joint Review Committee on Education in Radiologic Technology
hospital accreditation agency
Established a national standard for:
1.) electronic record security
2.) standardized electronic formats for record keeping
3.) standardized electronic identifiers and codes for institutions, personnel, diagnoses & treatment
4.) requirements of confidentiality and privacy rules
-Health Insurance Portability Accountability Act (1996).
-simplified standards, electronic records, safe guards patient security and confidentiality
Whats the most important reason to pass JCAHO?
To be reimbursed by the federal & state government & many insurance companies
What are the 9 steps of the FOCUS-PDCA method?
1. FIND & define problem
2. ORGANIZE team to improve
3. CLARIFY problem
4. UNDERSTAND problem & causes
5. SELECT method to improve process
6. PLAN implementation
7. DO implementation
8. CHECK results
9. ACT to continue improvements
QC steps for purchasing equipment
1. Identification of imaging requirements
2. development of equipment specs
3. selection of equipment
4. installation & acceptance testing
5. continuing education
6. monitoring equipment performance
7. processing systems
8. external beam evaluations
When new complex equipment is purchased, how many people should the vendor demonstrate and explain it?
At least 2
Although interdependent, what are the 2 divisions of monitoring equipment performance?
1. film processing systems
2. external beam evalution
3 objectives for a performance monitoring system:
1. monitor quality of image processing system
2. measure quality of external radiation beams
3. specify faults within these systems to allow corrective measures to be taken
Designed to permit an automatic film processor to fluctuate within set limits
*only performed by radiographer or processor maintenance person
What monitoring tests are done on a daily basis?
-darkroom fog test (AKA safelight test)
-processor sensitometry (monitors speed, contrast & base+fog)
Test to make sure red light isn't exposing film.
Test that monitors speed, contrast, and base+fog
On the sensitometric curve, name the low bottom part at the left, the straight line part in the middle, and the highest part at the right. Tell what each does.
TOE-base+fog, shows film w no exposure. STRAIGHT LINE-where useful radiographic densities lie.
If sensitometric curve is more vertical, what does that mean about the contrast of the film?
If sensitometric curve is closest to the axis, what does that mean about the speed of the film?
Involves the evaluation of the primary radiation beam
External Beam Evaluation
*computerized dosimeters that permit readouts of many quality control parameters from a single exposure
Diagnostic X-Ray tests
-Focal Spot Size Estimation:
---line pair resolution tool
---star test pattern: FSS: .03 &
---pinhole camera: FSS: .03 &
: lead marker in each corner;
: should be within
of light field
-Bucky tray accuracy: PBL should not allow beam to be larger than IR
-Distance & centering indicators
: checked with tape measure;
: visual inspection of collimator;
---use of a large protractor
Timer Accuracy ±5%
..........manual spinning top-1 phase
..........motorized synchronous top-3 phase
mR/mAs & mA Linearity
Exposure reproducibility ±5%
---generators must be capable of repeating exposures accurately
NEMA specifies that focal spots smaller than 0.8mm may be___% larger than stated nominal size. Focal spots between 0.8-1.5mm may be ___% larger than nominal, and focal spots larger than 1.5mm may be___% larger than nominal.
50, 40, 30
HVL requirements vary depending on the ____, and their purpose is to ____.
kVp, protect patients from low energy photons that would cause skin dose.
How much SID error is allowed between the primary beam image and the light field size?
How much SID error is allowed between the centering mark and the light field central ray?
Distance indicators should be accurate within ___.
Centering indicators (for centering locks, stops, and detents) should be accurate within ___.
Angles should be accurate within ___.
kVp should be accurate within ___.
What 2 ways can timer accuracy be tested, and for what phase unit is each?
....manual spinning top-1 phase
....motorized synchronous top-3 phase
Timer accuracy should be accurate within ___.
mA stations must be maintained within ___ of each other. (linearity)
How is mA station accuracy confirmed?
It is INFERRED by comparing mR/mAs measurements after both time and kVp accuracy have been verified.
* must test all to make sure they are in range
mR/mAs reproducibility should be maintained within ___.
Exposure reproducibility is tested by doing what?
shooting same technical factors 5x in a row & measuring mAs.
if 1 fails, they all fail
What is the fluoroscope used for?
moving internal structures and fluids
Emits electrons when illuminated by the input phosphor
Exposure rate for fluoro should not exceed ___.
What converts the light signal from the output phosphor to an electronic signal?
a television camera tube or CCD
What is a change in a quantity or signal in response to another quantity or signal and is widely used in medical imaging?
Video monitoring uses a rate of ___frames per second.
The higher the bandpass, the ___the horizontal resolution.
What 3 results does magnification have?
better spatial resolution, better contrast resolution, higher patient dose
Why is fluoro contrast higher than x-ray contrast?
because we give the patient contrast.
What does the automatic brightness control for fluoro adjust?
it adjusts mA for thickness of part.
it does not adjust mAs because time is selected by the foot pedal or eyeball button.
How is resolution tested in fluoro?
mesh test tool or resolution pattern
Tomographic systems are tested for what 4 things?
-uniformity and completeness of motion
-section depth indicator accuracy
-section thickness accuracy
Section depth in tomo is tested with what?
The more the fulcrum moves, the ____ the slice.
Tomo resolution is determined by the imaging test pattering at what level?
Densitometer readings of images produced with the AEC should be within ____.
Ion chambers must respond within ___ .
AEC response capability must be within ___.
What is the primary QA parameter for digital radiography detectors?
DQE- Defective Quantum Efficiency
What does DQE measure?
-the ratio of the transfer efficiency of the detector as the signal to noise ratio squared going into the system compared to that going out
-values range from 0-1 (1 being perfect)
-ability to view small or low contrast structures
-very important for mammo. (
In digital fluoro, spatial resolution is determined both by the ___ and by the size of the ___.
-size of the image intensifier
For image intensified fluoro, what is the order of conversion of x-ray photons through the tube to monitor?
x-ray to light, light to electrons, electrons to light, light to electric signal, electric signal to light
Repeated Image Stats
Total Exposure= 55%
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